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Mock Practice Test-6

Question
8 out of 80
 

Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

 

Neither misery nor folly seems to me any park of the inevitable lot of man. And I am convinced that intelligence, patience and eloquence can, sooner or later, lead the human race out of its self imposed tortures provided it does not exterminate itself meanwhile.

On the basis of this belief, I have always had a certain degree of optimism, although, as I have grown older, the optimism has grown more sober and the happy issues more distant. But I remain completely incapable of agreeing with those who accept fatalistically the view that man is born to trouble. The causes of unhappiness in the past and in the present are not difficult to ascertain. There have been poverty, pestilence and famine, which were due to man’s inadequate masters of nature. There have been wars, oppressions and tortures which have been due to man’s hostility to their fellow men. And there have been morbid miseries fostered by gloomy creeds, which have led men into profound inner discords that made all outward prosperity of no avail. All these are unnecessary. In regard to all of them, means are known by which they can be overcome. In the modern world, if communities are unhappy, it is because they chose to be so. Or to speak more precisely, because they have ignorance, habits, beliefs and passions which are dearer to them happiness or even life. I find many men in our dangerous age who seem to be in love with misery and death and grow angry when hopes are suggested to them.

A first, I imagined that the task of awaking people to the dangers of the Nuclear Peril should not be very difficult I shared the general belief that the motive of self preservation is a very powerful one which, when it comes into operation, generally overrides all others. I thought that people would not like the prospect of being fried with their families and their neighbours and every living person that they had heard of. I thought that it would be necessary to make the danger known and that, when this had been done, men of all parties would unite to restore previous safety. I found that this is a mistake. There is a motive which is stronger than self preservation: it is the desire to get the better of the other fellow.


Which among the following statements is not true in context of the passage.



A One can easily ascertain the reasons behind a person’s being unhappy.

B Communities now-a-days do not have a choice to be happy or troubled.

C Inner conflicts affect the outward happiness and prosperity of a person.

D Famines and pestilence are due to man’s own activities.

Ans. B

Mock Practice Test-6 Flashcard List

80 flashcards
1)
Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Vehicular pollution accounts for more than 70 per cent of carbon monoxide generated in the three metropolitan cities—Delhi, Bombay and Kolkata. This poisonous gas, emitted by petrol-driven vehicles in the form of exhaust, is much more toxic than the exhaust ot the diesel-driven vehicles such as trucks and buses. Dr. H.B. Mathur, Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, currently working on devices to control gaseous pollution, speaking at a seminar on “Environment, Development and Law in the Developing Countries” in the capital on Saturday, said that controlling the gases emitted by petrol-driven vehicles was crucial for ensuring healthy environment in the metropolitan cities. But besides carbon monoxide there are other hazardous gases in the air like hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen that have crossed the desired limit. Things are, however, only going to get worse in the next decade with vehicular traffic increasing manifold. It is estimated that there will be a sixfold increase in the number of motorcycles, scooters and tempos, a threefold increase in the diesel powered trucks and buses and almost twofold increase in the number of gasoline-operated vehicles on roads. Immediate measures thus need to be taken to check growing degradation of the environment. The available techniques involve oxidation of the hazardous gases in the exhaust chamber itself by supplying additional oxygen, or alternatively using catalysts. The formation of carbon monoxide is directly related to air-fuel ratio. If formed, it may be eliminated by further oxidation, either thermally or catalytically. The formation of oxides of nitrogen can be minimized by lowering the combustion temperature. Dr Paul C. Njoku of Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, on the other hand, suggested that alternative fuels should be used. He gave the example of natural gas engine technology which has considerably advanced in the recent times. Dr Njoku said almost all the CNG-powered vehicles on roads today are conventional gasoline fuelled vehicles that have been converted to duel fuel operation. Read the above text carefully to answer the following questions. The exhaust of diesel-driven vehicles is A more poisonous than that of petrol driven cars. B less poisonous than that of petrol driven cars. C as poisonous as the exhaust of petrol driven cars. D are environment friendly.
2)
Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Vehicular pollution accounts for more than 70 per cent of carbon monoxide generated in the three metropolitan cities—Delhi, Bombay and Kolkata. This poisonous gas, emitted by petrol-driven vehicles in the form of exhaust, is much more toxic than the exhaust ot the diesel-driven vehicles such as trucks and buses. Dr. H.B. Mathur, Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, currently working on devices to control gaseous pollution, speaking at a seminar on “Environment, Development and Law in the Developing Countries” in the capital on Saturday, said that controlling the gases emitted by petrol-driven vehicles was crucial for ensuring healthy environment in the metropolitan cities. But besides carbon monoxide there are other hazardous gases in the air like hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen that have crossed the desired limit. Things are, however, only going to get worse in the next decade with vehicular traffic increasing manifold. It is estimated that there will be a sixfold increase in the number of motorcycles, scooters and tempos, a threefold increase in the diesel powered trucks and buses and almost twofold increase in the number of gasoline-operated vehicles on roads. Immediate measures thus need to be taken to check growing degradation of the environment. The available techniques involve oxidation of the hazardous gases in the exhaust chamber itself by supplying additional oxygen, or alternatively using catalysts. The formation of carbon monoxide is directly related to air-fuel ratio. If formed, it may be eliminated by further oxidation, either thermally or catalytically. The formation of oxides of nitrogen can be minimized by lowering the combustion temperature. Dr Paul C. Njoku of Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, on the other hand, suggested that alternative fuels should be used. He gave the example of natural gas engine technology which has considerably advanced in the recent times. Dr Njoku said almost all the CNG-powered vehicles on roads today are conventional gasoline fuelled vehicles that have been converted to duel fuel operation. Read the above text carefully to answer the following questions. The toxic gases mentioned in the passage is/are A carbon monoxide. B carbon monoxide, other hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. C carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen. D CNG
3)
Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Vehicular pollution accounts for more than 70 per cent of carbon monoxide generated in the three metropolitan cities—Delhi, Bombay and Kolkata. This poisonous gas, emitted by petrol-driven vehicles in the form of exhaust, is much more toxic than the exhaust ot the diesel-driven vehicles such as trucks and buses. Dr. H.B. Mathur, Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, currently working on devices to control gaseous pollution, speaking at a seminar on “Environment, Development and Law in the Developing Countries” in the capital on Saturday, said that controlling the gases emitted by petrol-driven vehicles was crucial for ensuring healthy environment in the metropolitan cities. But besides carbon monoxide there are other hazardous gases in the air like hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen that have crossed the desired limit. Things are, however, only going to get worse in the next decade with vehicular traffic increasing manifold. It is estimated that there will be a sixfold increase in the number of motorcycles, scooters and tempos, a threefold increase in the diesel powered trucks and buses and almost twofold increase in the number of gasoline-operated vehicles on roads. Immediate measures thus need to be taken to check growing degradation of the environment. The available techniques involve oxidation of the hazardous gases in the exhaust chamber itself by supplying additional oxygen, or alternatively using catalysts. The formation of carbon monoxide is directly related to air-fuel ratio. If formed, it may be eliminated by further oxidation, either thermally or catalytically. The formation of oxides of nitrogen can be minimized by lowering the combustion temperature. Dr Paul C. Njoku of Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, on the other hand, suggested that alternative fuels should be used. He gave the example of natural gas engine technology which has considerably advanced in the recent times. Dr Njoku said almost all the CNG-powered vehicles on roads today are conventional gasoline fuelled vehicles that have been converted to duel fuel operation. Read the above text carefully to answer the following questions. Healthy environment in metropolitan cities can be ensured by A stopping plying of petrol-driven cars. B increasing the number of diesel vehicles. C controlling the gases emitted by petrol driven cars. D none of these.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Vehicular pollution accounts for more than 70 per cent of carbon monoxide generated in the three metropolitan cities—Delhi, Bombay and Kolkata. This poisonous gas, emitted by petrol-driven vehicles in the form of exhaust, is much more toxic than the exhaust ot the diesel-driven vehicles such as trucks and buses. Dr. H.B. Mathur, Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, currently working on devices to control gaseous pollution, speaking at a seminar on “Environment, Development and Law in the Developing Countries” in the capital on Saturday, said that controlling the gases emitted by petrol-driven vehicles was crucial for ensuring healthy environment in the metropolitan cities. But besides carbon monoxide there are other hazardous gases in the air like hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen that have crossed the desired limit. Things are, however, only going to get worse in the next decade with vehicular traffic increasing manifold. It is estimated that there will be a sixfold increase in the number of motorcycles, scooters and tempos, a threefold increase in the diesel powered trucks and buses and almost twofold increase in the number of gasoline-operated vehicles on roads. Immediate measures thus need to be taken to check growing degradation of the environment. The available techniques involve oxidation of the hazardous gases in the exhaust chamber itself by supplying additional oxygen, or alternatively using catalysts. The formation of carbon monoxide is directly related to air-fuel ratio. If formed, it may be eliminated by further oxidation, either thermally or catalytically. The formation of oxides of nitrogen can be minimized by lowering the combustion temperature. Dr Paul C. Njoku of Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, on the other hand, suggested that alternative fuels should be used. He gave the example of natural gas engine technology which has considerably advanced in the recent times. Dr Njoku said almost all the CNG-powered vehicles on roads today are conventional gasoline fuelled vehicles that have been converted to duel fuel operation. Read the above text carefully to answer the following questions. If the combusting temperature is lowered A more nitrogen oxide will be formed. B less nitrogen oxide will be formed. C no nitrogen oxide will be formed. D nothing will happen.
5)
Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Neither misery nor folly seems to me any park of the inevitable lot of man. And I am convinced that intelligence, patience and eloquence can, sooner or later, lead the human race out of its self imposed tortures provided it does not exterminate itself meanwhile. On the basis of this belief, I have always had a certain degree of optimism, although, as I have grown older, the optimism has grown more sober and the happy issues more distant. But I remain completely incapable of agreeing with those who accept fatalistically the view that man is born to trouble. The causes of unhappiness in the past and in the present are not difficult to ascertain. There have been poverty, pestilence and famine, which were due to man’s inadequate masters of nature. There have been wars, oppressions and tortures which have been due to man’s hostility to their fellow men. And there have been morbid miseries fostered by gloomy creeds, which have led men into profound inner discords that made all outward prosperity of no avail. All these are unnecessary. In regard to all of them, means are known by which they can be overcome. In the modern world, if communities are unhappy, it is because they chose to be so. Or to speak more precisely, because they have ignorance, habits, beliefs and passions which are dearer to them happiness or even life. I find many men in our dangerous age who seem to be in love with misery and death and grow angry when hopes are suggested to them. A first, I imagined that the task of awaking people to the dangers of the Nuclear Peril should not be very difficult I shared the general belief that the motive of self preservation is a very powerful one which, when it comes into operation, generally overrides all others. I thought that people would not like the prospect of being fried with their families and their neighbours and every living person that they had heard of. I thought that it would be necessary to make the danger known and that, when this had been done, men of all parties would unite to restore previous safety. I found that this is a mistake. There is a motive which is stronger than self preservation: it is the desire to get the better of the other fellow. Which of the following options best describes the gist of the passage? A Unhappiness is a matter of personal choice and is not external to oneself. B Happiness lies in acknowledging future possibilities of gloom. C Unhappiness lies in the discovery of self-belief and assessment. D Happiness comes from facing unpleasant possibilities.
6)
Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Neither misery nor folly seems to me any park of the inevitable lot of man. And I am convinced that intelligence, patience and eloquence can, sooner or later, lead the human race out of its self imposed tortures provided it does not exterminate itself meanwhile. On the basis of this belief, I have always had a certain degree of optimism, although, as I have grown older, the optimism has grown more sober and the happy issues more distant. But I remain completely incapable of agreeing with those who accept fatalistically the view that man is born to trouble. The causes of unhappiness in the past and in the present are not difficult to ascertain. There have been poverty, pestilence and famine, which were due to man’s inadequate masters of nature. There have been wars, oppressions and tortures which have been due to man’s hostility to their fellow men. And there have been morbid miseries fostered by gloomy creeds, which have led men into profound inner discords that made all outward prosperity of no avail. All these are unnecessary. In regard to all of them, means are known by which they can be overcome. In the modern world, if communities are unhappy, it is because they chose to be so. Or to speak more precisely, because they have ignorance, habits, beliefs and passions which are dearer to them happiness or even life. I find many men in our dangerous age who seem to be in love with misery and death and grow angry when hopes are suggested to them. A first, I imagined that the task of awaking people to the dangers of the Nuclear Peril should not be very difficult I shared the general belief that the motive of self preservation is a very powerful one which, when it comes into operation, generally overrides all others. I thought that people would not like the prospect of being fried with their families and their neighbours and every living person that they had heard of. I thought that it would be necessary to make the danger known and that, when this had been done, men of all parties would unite to restore previous safety. I found that this is a mistake. There is a motive which is stronger than self preservation: it is the desire to get the better of the other fellow. From the line “And there have been morbid miseries fostered by gloomy creeds, which have led men into profound inner discords that made all outward prosperity of no avail”, it can be deduced that: A prosperity has vanished due to people’s greed and desire for destruction. B man-made unhappiness makes people view wealth and material comforts as worthless. C sadness has led to severe miseries. D hostility towards one’s own kind destroy inner peace.
7)
Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Neither misery nor folly seems to me any park of the inevitable lot of man. And I am convinced that intelligence, patience and eloquence can, sooner or later, lead the human race out of its self imposed tortures provided it does not exterminate itself meanwhile. On the basis of this belief, I have always had a certain degree of optimism, although, as I have grown older, the optimism has grown more sober and the happy issues more distant. But I remain completely incapable of agreeing with those who accept fatalistically the view that man is born to trouble. The causes of unhappiness in the past and in the present are not difficult to ascertain. There have been poverty, pestilence and famine, which were due to man’s inadequate masters of nature. There have been wars, oppressions and tortures which have been due to man’s hostility to their fellow men. And there have been morbid miseries fostered by gloomy creeds, which have led men into profound inner discords that made all outward prosperity of no avail. All these are unnecessary. In regard to all of them, means are known by which they can be overcome. In the modern world, if communities are unhappy, it is because they chose to be so. Or to speak more precisely, because they have ignorance, habits, beliefs and passions which are dearer to them happiness or even life. I find many men in our dangerous age who seem to be in love with misery and death and grow angry when hopes are suggested to them. A first, I imagined that the task of awaking people to the dangers of the Nuclear Peril should not be very difficult I shared the general belief that the motive of self preservation is a very powerful one which, when it comes into operation, generally overrides all others. I thought that people would not like the prospect of being fried with their families and their neighbours and every living person that they had heard of. I thought that it would be necessary to make the danger known and that, when this had been done, men of all parties would unite to restore previous safety. I found that this is a mistake. There is a motive which is stronger than self preservation: it is the desire to get the better of the other fellow. In the passage, the word ‘fatalistically’ refers to: A pre-assessed B pre-viewed C pre-ordained D pre-fixed
8)
Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Neither misery nor folly seems to me any park of the inevitable lot of man. And I am convinced that intelligence, patience and eloquence can, sooner or later, lead the human race out of its self imposed tortures provided it does not exterminate itself meanwhile. On the basis of this belief, I have always had a certain degree of optimism, although, as I have grown older, the optimism has grown more sober and the happy issues more distant. But I remain completely incapable of agreeing with those who accept fatalistically the view that man is born to trouble. The causes of unhappiness in the past and in the present are not difficult to ascertain. There have been poverty, pestilence and famine, which were due to man’s inadequate masters of nature. There have been wars, oppressions and tortures which have been due to man’s hostility to their fellow men. And there have been morbid miseries fostered by gloomy creeds, which have led men into profound inner discords that made all outward prosperity of no avail. All these are unnecessary. In regard to all of them, means are known by which they can be overcome. In the modern world, if communities are unhappy, it is because they chose to be so. Or to speak more precisely, because they have ignorance, habits, beliefs and passions which are dearer to them happiness or even life. I find many men in our dangerous age who seem to be in love with misery and death and grow angry when hopes are suggested to them. A first, I imagined that the task of awaking people to the dangers of the Nuclear Peril should not be very difficult I shared the general belief that the motive of self preservation is a very powerful one which, when it comes into operation, generally overrides all others. I thought that people would not like the prospect of being fried with their families and their neighbours and every living person that they had heard of. I thought that it would be necessary to make the danger known and that, when this had been done, men of all parties would unite to restore previous safety. I found that this is a mistake. There is a motive which is stronger than self preservation: it is the desire to get the better of the other fellow. Which among the following statements is not true in context of the passage. A One can easily ascertain the reasons behind a person’s being unhappy. B Communities now-a-days do not have a choice to be happy or troubled. C Inner conflicts affect the outward happiness and prosperity of a person. D Famines and pestilence are due to man’s own activities.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Long ago goods were manufactured by craftsmen, who were skilled workmen. A craftsman was proud of each article he made. He spent a long time in making it and took great care over its manufacture, and people paid a high price for it when it was finished. All the luxurious Persian carpets, the beautiful Chinese pottery and the hand-made laces of certain European countries were made this way. But these articles were bought only by the rich. Poorer people had to be satisfied with goods that were roughly and cheaply made. When the population of Europe increased, there was a demand for goods of better quality. These goods had to be produced in factories and workshops where hundreds of workers were employed. The invention of the steam engine helped manufacturers by giving them cheaper power to work their machines. Machines took the place of men. Production was increased. People were able to buy articles of good quality at low prices. The age of mass production means the manufacture of a large number of identical articles by the use of machinery. Cars, radios and cameras are examples of the many types of articles that are mass produced today. A conveyor belt plays a large part in mass production. By means of the conveyor belt which moves continuously, articles are conveyed from point to point during the various stages in their manufacture. A lot of time is saved in this way. A visit to a factory is an interesting experience. Take, for example, a biscuit factory. The whole process of biscuit-making is done by machinery. First of all, the ingredients such as flour, sugar, fat and water are put into a mixing machine. The mixture comes out of the mixing machine in the form of dough and is passed on to machine that processes the dough into moulds. In these moulds the dough is given that shape of biscuit. Then the biscuits are carried by a conveyor belt to the oven. As they move though the oven they are slowly cooked. When they are cool, they are taken off the moving belt by workers and packed into boxes. The boxes are weighed, made air-tight and wrapped. Then they are ready to leave the factory. Goods manufactured by craftsmen fetched very high prices because A the craftsmen were too proud to lower their prices B the craftsmen wanted to earn a lot of money C it took a lot of skill and time in making them D none of these
18)
Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Long ago goods were manufactured by craftsmen, who were skilled workmen. A craftsman was proud of each article he made. He spent a long time in making it and took great care over its manufacture, and people paid a high price for it when it was finished. All the luxurious Persian carpets, the beautiful Chinese pottery and the hand-made laces of certain European countries were made this way. But these articles were bought only by the rich. Poorer people had to be satisfied with goods that were roughly and cheaply made. When the population of Europe increased, there was a demand for goods of better quality. These goods had to be produced in factories and workshops where hundreds of workers were employed. The invention of the steam engine helped manufacturers by giving them cheaper power to work their machines. Machines took the place of men. Production was increased. People were able to buy articles of good quality at low prices. The age of mass production means the manufacture of a large number of identical articles by the use of machinery. Cars, radios and cameras are examples of the many types of articles that are mass produced today. A conveyor belt plays a large part in mass production. By means of the conveyor belt which moves continuously, articles are conveyed from point to point during the various stages in their manufacture. A lot of time is saved in this way. A visit to a factory is an interesting experience. Take, for example, a biscuit factory. The whole process of biscuit-making is done by machinery. First of all, the ingredients such as flour, sugar, fat and water are put into a mixing machine. The mixture comes out of the mixing machine in the form of dough and is passed on to machine that processes the dough into moulds. In these moulds the dough is given that shape of biscuit. Then the biscuits are carried by a conveyor belt to the oven. As they move though the oven they are slowly cooked. When they are cool, they are taken off the moving belt by workers and packed into boxes. The boxes are weighed, made air-tight and wrapped. Then they are ready to leave the factory. Goods produced in factories and workshops were cheaper because A hundreds of workers made them B they were produced quickly and in large quantities C they were of low quality D none of these
19)
Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Long ago goods were manufactured by craftsmen, who were skilled workmen. A craftsman was proud of each article he made. He spent a long time in making it and took great care over its manufacture, and people paid a high price for it when it was finished. All the luxurious Persian carpets, the beautiful Chinese pottery and the hand-made laces of certain European countries were made this way. But these articles were bought only by the rich. Poorer people had to be satisfied with goods that were roughly and cheaply made. When the population of Europe increased, there was a demand for goods of better quality. These goods had to be produced in factories and workshops where hundreds of workers were employed. The invention of the steam engine helped manufacturers by giving them cheaper power to work their machines. Machines took the place of men. Production was increased. People were able to buy articles of good quality at low prices. The age of mass production means the manufacture of a large number of identical articles by the use of machinery. Cars, radios and cameras are examples of the many types of articles that are mass produced today. A conveyor belt plays a large part in mass production. By means of the conveyor belt which moves continuously, articles are conveyed from point to point during the various stages in their manufacture. A lot of time is saved in this way. A visit to a factory is an interesting experience. Take, for example, a biscuit factory. The whole process of biscuit-making is done by machinery. First of all, the ingredients such as flour, sugar, fat and water are put into a mixing machine. The mixture comes out of the mixing machine in the form of dough and is passed on to machine that processes the dough into moulds. In these moulds the dough is given that shape of biscuit. Then the biscuits are carried by a conveyor belt to the oven. As they move though the oven they are slowly cooked. When they are cool, they are taken off the moving belt by workers and packed into boxes. The boxes are weighed, made air-tight and wrapped. Then they are ready to leave the factory. The steam engine proved to be a boon for the manufacturing industry because A now machines could take the place of men B hundreds of men could work at one machine C many machines were used in a large factory D none of these
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Traditionally, the first firm to commercialize a new technology has benefited from the unique opportunity to shape product definitions, forcing following to adapt to a standard or invest in an unproven alternative. Today, however, the largest payoffs go to the companies, that lead in production and distribution. Producers of the Bete Format for video cassette recorders (VCRs), for example, were first to develop the VCR commercially in 1975, but producers of the rival VHS (Video Home System) format proved to be more successful at forming strategic alliances with the producers and distributors to manufacture and market their VCR format. Seeking to maintain exclusive control over VCR distribution, Bete producers were reluctant to form such alliances and eventually lost ground to VHS in the competition for the global VCR market. Despite Bete’s substantial technological head start and the fact that VHS was neither technically better nor cheaper than Bete, developers of VHS quickly turned a slight early with producers of prerecorded tapes reinforced the VHS advantage. The perception among consumers that prerecorded tapes were more available in VHS format further expanded VHS’s share of market. By the end of 1980s, Bete, was no longer in production. According to the passage, today’s successful firms, unlike successful firms in the past, may earn the greatest profits by A establishing technological leadership in order to shape product definitions in advance of competing firms. B adapting rapidly to a chronological standard previously set by a competing firm. C investing in search to produce cheaper versions of existing technology. D emphasizing the development of methods for the mass production and distribution of a new technology.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Traditionally, the first firm to commercialize a new technology has benefited from the unique opportunity to shape product definitions, forcing following to adapt to a standard or invest in an unproven alternative. Today, however, the largest payoffs go to the companies, that lead in production and distribution. Producers of the Bete Format for video cassette recorders (VCRs), for example, were first to develop the VCR commercially in 1975, but producers of the rival VHS (Video Home System) format proved to be more successful at forming strategic alliances with the producers and distributors to manufacture and market their VCR format. Seeking to maintain exclusive control over VCR distribution, Bete producers were reluctant to form such alliances and eventually lost ground to VHS in the competition for the global VCR market. Despite Bete’s substantial technological head start and the fact that VHS was neither technically better nor cheaper than Bete, developers of VHS quickly turned a slight early with producers of prerecorded tapes reinforced the VHS advantage. The perception among consumers that prerecorded tapes were more available in VHS format further expanded VHS’s share of market. By the end of 1980s, Bete, was no longer in production. According to the passage, consumers began to develop a preference for VCRs in the VHS format because they believed which of the following? A VHS prerecorded videotapes were more available than Beta-format tapes. B VCRs in the VHS format were less expensive than competing-format VCRs. C VCRs in the VHS format were technically better than competing-format VCRs. D VHS was the first standard format of VCRs.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Traditionally, the first firm to commercialize a new technology has benefited from the unique opportunity to shape product definitions, forcing following to adapt to a standard or invest in an unproven alternative. Today, however, the largest payoffs go to the companies, that lead in production and distribution. Producers of the Bete Format for video cassette recorders (VCRs), for example, were first to develop the VCR commercially in 1975, but producers of the rival VHS (Video Home System) format proved to be more successful at forming strategic alliances with the producers and distributors to manufacture and market their VCR format. Seeking to maintain exclusive control over VCR distribution, Bete producers were reluctant to form such alliances and eventually lost ground to VHS in the competition for the global VCR market. Despite Bete’s substantial technological head start and the fact that VHS was neither technically better nor cheaper than Bete, developers of VHS quickly turned a slight early with producers of prerecorded tapes reinforced the VHS advantage. The perception among consumers that prerecorded tapes were more available in VHS format further expanded VHS’s share of market. By the end of 1980s, Bete, was no longer in production. The alignment of producers of VHS-format VCRs with producers of prerecorded videotapes is most similar to which of the following? A The alignment of an automobile manufacturer with an automotive glass company whereby the windshields are procured only from that one glass company. B The alignment of an automobile manufacture with a petroleum company to ensure the widespread availability of the fuel required by a new type of engine developed by the manufacturer. C The alignment of an automobile manufacturer with its dealers to adopt a plan to improve automobile design. D The alignment of an automobile deals with an automobile chain to adopt a strategy for an advertising campaign to promote a new type of automobile.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Traditionally, the first firm to commercialize a new technology has benefited from the unique opportunity to shape product definitions, forcing following to adapt to a standard or invest in an unproven alternative. Today, however, the largest payoffs go to the companies, that lead in production and distribution. Producers of the Bete Format for video cassette recorders (VCRs), for example, were first to develop the VCR commercially in 1975, but producers of the rival VHS (Video Home System) format proved to be more successful at forming strategic alliances with the producers and distributors to manufacture and market their VCR format. Seeking to maintain exclusive control over VCR distribution, Bete producers were reluctant to form such alliances and eventually lost ground to VHS in the competition for the global VCR market. Despite Bete’s substantial technological head start and the fact that VHS was neither technically better nor cheaper than Bete, developers of VHS quickly turned a slight early with producers of prerecorded tapes reinforced the VHS advantage. The perception among consumers that prerecorded tapes were more available in VHS format further expanded VHS’s share of market. By the end of 1980s, Bete, was no longer in production. The author implies that one way that VHS producers won control over the VCR market was by A sharing control of the marketing of VHS-format VCRs. B sacrificing technological superiority over Beta-format VCR’s in order to remain competitive in price. C retaining a strict monopoly on the production of prerecorded videotapes. D carefully restricting access to VCR technology.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   The country’s biggest inland lake, Chilka, is a veritable wonder linking with the Bay of Bengal through a narrow mouth, hence making it more of a tropical lagoon. The lake is dotted with a number of picturesque islands, some with evocative names like Honeymoon Island, Breakfast Island and Bird Island. Its beauty is further enhanced by its rich variety of aquatic fauna and resident and migratory birds. Its shores are habitat of beautiful black bucks. The 19th century Oriya poet, Radhanath Roy, remarked that Chilka was truly a thing of beauty, a joy forever. The lake is encircled by numerous hills. Its colour changes in kaleidoscopic grandeur with the passing clouds and the sun’s position. The picture postcard beauty is enhanced by hundreds of boats which set sail everyday, wafted by the breeze from the sea, the fisherman making a bountiful catch of prawn, mackerel and crab. Chilka wears a charming look specially in winter when it becomes home to exotic species of migratory birds coming in large number from lands as far off as Siberia and Mongolia and from some other cold countries. Chilka has the Goddess Kalijai temple, abode of its presiding deity, on a tiny island. Another attraction is the island home of migratory birds called Nalabana. Visitors of the lake can reach its emerald green island by motor launches of the Orissa Tourism Development Corporation (OTDC) stationed at Barkul and Rambha that are available on hire. Motor launches of the state revenue department are also available at nearby Balugaon. Besides, country boats can be hired from private operators at all these places. The sun’s position and passing clouds A have no effect on the beauty of Chilka. B add to the beauty of Chilka. C spoil the beauty of Chilka. D none of these
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   The country’s biggest inland lake, Chilka, is a veritable wonder linking with the Bay of Bengal through a narrow mouth, hence making it more of a tropical lagoon. The lake is dotted with a number of picturesque islands, some with evocative names like Honeymoon Island, Breakfast Island and Bird Island. Its beauty is further enhanced by its rich variety of aquatic fauna and resident and migratory birds. Its shores are habitat of beautiful black bucks. The 19th century Oriya poet, Radhanath Roy, remarked that Chilka was truly a thing of beauty, a joy forever. The lake is encircled by numerous hills. Its colour changes in kaleidoscopic grandeur with the passing clouds and the sun’s position. The picture postcard beauty is enhanced by hundreds of boats which set sail everyday, wafted by the breeze from the sea, the fisherman making a bountiful catch of prawn, mackerel and crab. Chilka wears a charming look specially in winter when it becomes home to exotic species of migratory birds coming in large number from lands as far off as Siberia and Mongolia and from some other cold countries. Chilka has the Goddess Kalijai temple, abode of its presiding deity, on a tiny island. Another attraction is the island home of migratory birds called Nalabana. Visitors of the lake can reach its emerald green island by motor launches of the Orissa Tourism Development Corporation (OTDC) stationed at Barkul and Rambha that are available on hire. Motor launches of the state revenue department are also available at nearby Balugaon. Besides, country boats can be hired from private operators at all these places. For the visitors of Chilka A there are good arrangements for travel by motor launches. B no arrangements are there for travel by boats or launches. C arrangements for travel by boath and launches are very poor. D There is nothing to be seen.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   The country’s biggest inland lake, Chilka, is a veritable wonder linking with the Bay of Bengal through a narrow mouth, hence making it more of a tropical lagoon. The lake is dotted with a number of picturesque islands, some with evocative names like Honeymoon Island, Breakfast Island and Bird Island. Its beauty is further enhanced by its rich variety of aquatic fauna and resident and migratory birds. Its shores are habitat of beautiful black bucks. The 19th century Oriya poet, Radhanath Roy, remarked that Chilka was truly a thing of beauty, a joy forever. The lake is encircled by numerous hills. Its colour changes in kaleidoscopic grandeur with the passing clouds and the sun’s position. The picture postcard beauty is enhanced by hundreds of boats which set sail everyday, wafted by the breeze from the sea, the fisherman making a bountiful catch of prawn, mackerel and crab. Chilka wears a charming look specially in winter when it becomes home to exotic species of migratory birds coming in large number from lands as far off as Siberia and Mongolia and from some other cold countries. Chilka has the Goddess Kalijai temple, abode of its presiding deity, on a tiny island. Another attraction is the island home of migratory birds called Nalabana. Visitors of the lake can reach its emerald green island by motor launches of the Orissa Tourism Development Corporation (OTDC) stationed at Barkul and Rambha that are available on hire. Motor launches of the state revenue department are also available at nearby Balugaon. Besides, country boats can be hired from private operators at all these places. Read the text to choose the correct title from the list of alternatives given below: A Scenic Beauty of Chilka B Chilka—a Tropical Lagoon C Chilka and the Migratory Birds D Chilka and Poetry
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Environmental protection is gaining momentum, with India poised to play a greater role in the years to come. There is a great potential for a category of non-soild natural timber products which include PVC boards, MDF boards, Glass fiber reinforced plastic, wood based particle board, black boards, rubber wood, etc. MDF boards are produced from agro-based raw material and have been widely accepted as the most effective substitute for wood globally. Initially these were manufactured on low scale but Subwood Ltd. went ahead with technology transfer and equity participation from world leaders in Sweden. Using state-of-art technology with an investment of Rs. 600 million, the plant is geared to 39,000 tones of Subwood MDF annually. Subwood has a very wide usage in housing, industrial and institutional sectors. MDF industry is experiencing global boon. There exists a major demand supply gap. The demand for natural wood for the building industry is estimated at a phenomenal 12 million tones per year. However the product being new to the Indian market it is going to face a tough competition from natural wood in high-income class and also lower strata of the society. Opportunity offered to Subwood Ltd. is primarily on account of A the state-of-art technology from Sweden B environmental protection gaining momentum C the use of agro based raw material D wide usage of MDF in all sectors
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Two modes of argumentation have been used on behalf of woman’s emancipation in Western societies. Arguments in what could be called the “rational” feminist tradition maintain the doctrine of “equality in difference”, or equity as distinct from equality. They posit that biological distinctions between the sexes result in a necessary sexual division of labour in the family and throughout society and that women’s procreative labour is currently undervalued by society to the disadvantage of women. By contrast, the individualist feminist tradition emphasizes individual human rights and celebrates women’s quest for personal autonomy, while downplaying the importance of gender role and minimizing discussion of childbearing and its attendant responsibilities. Before the late nineteenth century, these views co-existed within the feminist movement, often within the writings of the same individual. Between 1890 and 1920, however, relational feminism, which had been the dominant strain in feminist thought, and which still predominates among European and non-Western feminists, lost ground in England and the United States. Because the concept of individual rights was already well established in the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition, individualist feminism came to predominate in English speaking countries. At the same time, the goals of the two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilable. Individualist feminists began to advocate a totally gender-blind system with equal right for all rational feminists, while agreeing that equal educational and economic opportunities outside the home should be available for all women, continued to emphasize women’s special contributions to society as homemakers and mothers; they demanded special treatment for women, including protective legislation for women workers, state-sponsored maternity benefits, and paid compensation for homework. Relational arguments have a major pitfall, they underlined women’s physiological and psychological distinctiveness, they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege. But the individualist approach, by attacking gender roles, denying the significance of physiological difference, and condemning existing familial institutions as hopelessly patriarchal, has often simply treated as irrelevant the family roles important to many women. If the individualist framework, with its claim for women’s autonomy could be harmonized with the family oriented concerns of rational feminists, a more fruitful model for contemporary feminist politics could emerge. According to the author, which of the following was true of feminist thought in Western societies before 1890? A The predominant view among feminists held that the welfare of women was ultimately less important than the welfare of children. B The predominant view among feminists held that the sexes should receive equal treatment under the law. C Individualist feminist arguments were not found in the thought or writing of non-English speaking feminists. D Individualist feminism was a strain in feminist thought, but another strain, rational feminism, predominated.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Two modes of argumentation have been used on behalf of woman’s emancipation in Western societies. Arguments in what could be called the “rational” feminist tradition maintain the doctrine of “equality in difference”, or equity as distinct from equality. They posit that biological distinctions between the sexes result in a necessary sexual division of labour in the family and throughout society and that women’s procreative labour is currently undervalued by society to the disadvantage of women. By contrast, the individualist feminist tradition emphasizes individual human rights and celebrates women’s quest for personal autonomy, while downplaying the importance of gender role and minimizing discussion of childbearing and its attendant responsibilities. Before the late nineteenth century, these views co-existed within the feminist movement, often within the writings of the same individual. Between 1890 and 1920, however, relational feminism, which had been the dominant strain in feminist thought, and which still predominates among European and non-Western feminists, lost ground in England and the United States. Because the concept of individual rights was already well established in the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition, individualist feminism came to predominate in English speaking countries. At the same time, the goals of the two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilable. Individualist feminists began to advocate a totally gender-blind system with equal right for all rational feminists, while agreeing that equal educational and economic opportunities outside the home should be available for all women, continued to emphasize women’s special contributions to society as homemakers and mothers; they demanded special treatment for women, including protective legislation for women workers, state-sponsored maternity benefits, and paid compensation for homework. Relational arguments have a major pitfall, they underlined women’s physiological and psychological distinctiveness, they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege. But the individualist approach, by attacking gender roles, denying the significance of physiological difference, and condemning existing familial institutions as hopelessly patriarchal, has often simply treated as irrelevant the family roles important to many women. If the individualist framework, with its claim for women’s autonomy could be harmonized with the family oriented concerns of rational feminists, a more fruitful model for contemporary feminist politics could emerge. The author of the passage alludes to the well-established nature of the concept of individual rights in the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition in order to A help account for an increasing shift through individualist feminism among feminists in English speaking countries. B argue that feminism was already a part of the larger Anglo-Saxon intellectual tradition, even though this has often gone unnoticed by critics of women’s emancipation. C account for the philosophical differences between individualist and relational feminists in English speaking countries. D illustrate the influence of individualist feminist thought or more general intellectual trends in English history.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Two modes of argumentation have been used on behalf of woman’s emancipation in Western societies. Arguments in what could be called the “rational” feminist tradition maintain the doctrine of “equality in difference”, or equity as distinct from equality. They posit that biological distinctions between the sexes result in a necessary sexual division of labour in the family and throughout society and that women’s procreative labour is currently undervalued by society to the disadvantage of women. By contrast, the individualist feminist tradition emphasizes individual human rights and celebrates women’s quest for personal autonomy, while downplaying the importance of gender role and minimizing discussion of childbearing and its attendant responsibilities. Before the late nineteenth century, these views co-existed within the feminist movement, often within the writings of the same individual. Between 1890 and 1920, however, relational feminism, which had been the dominant strain in feminist thought, and which still predominates among European and non-Western feminists, lost ground in England and the United States. Because the concept of individual rights was already well established in the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition, individualist feminism came to predominate in English speaking countries. At the same time, the goals of the two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilable. Individualist feminists began to advocate a totally gender-blind system with equal right for all rational feminists, while agreeing that equal educational and economic opportunities outside the home should be available for all women, continued to emphasize women’s special contributions to society as homemakers and mothers; they demanded special treatment for women, including protective legislation for women workers, state-sponsored maternity benefits, and paid compensation for homework. Relational arguments have a major pitfall, they underlined women’s physiological and psychological distinctiveness, they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege. But the individualist approach, by attacking gender roles, denying the significance of physiological difference, and condemning existing familial institutions as hopelessly patriarchal, has often simply treated as irrelevant the family roles important to many women. If the individualist framework, with its claim for women’s autonomy could be harmonized with the family oriented concerns of rational feminists, a more fruitful model for contemporary feminist politics could emerge. It can be inferred from the passage that the individualist feminism tradition denies the validity of which of the following causal statements? A A division of labour on the basis of gender in a social group is necessitated by the existence of sex-linked biological differences between male and female members of the group. B A division of labour in a social group causes inequities in the distribution of opportunities and benefits among group members. C Culturally determined distinctions based on gender in a social group the existence of differing attitudes and opinions among group members. D A division of labour in a social group can result in increased efficiency with regard to the performance of group tasks.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Two modes of argumentation have been used on behalf of woman’s emancipation in Western societies. Arguments in what could be called the “rational” feminist tradition maintain the doctrine of “equality in difference”, or equity as distinct from equality. They posit that biological distinctions between the sexes result in a necessary sexual division of labour in the family and throughout society and that women’s procreative labour is currently undervalued by society to the disadvantage of women. By contrast, the individualist feminist tradition emphasizes individual human rights and celebrates women’s quest for personal autonomy, while downplaying the importance of gender role and minimizing discussion of childbearing and its attendant responsibilities. Before the late nineteenth century, these views co-existed within the feminist movement, often within the writings of the same individual. Between 1890 and 1920, however, relational feminism, which had been the dominant strain in feminist thought, and which still predominates among European and non-Western feminists, lost ground in England and the United States. Because the concept of individual rights was already well established in the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition, individualist feminism came to predominate in English speaking countries. At the same time, the goals of the two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilable. Individualist feminists began to advocate a totally gender-blind system with equal right for all rational feminists, while agreeing that equal educational and economic opportunities outside the home should be available for all women, continued to emphasize women’s special contributions to society as homemakers and mothers; they demanded special treatment for women, including protective legislation for women workers, state-sponsored maternity benefits, and paid compensation for homework. Relational arguments have a major pitfall, they underlined women’s physiological and psychological distinctiveness, they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege. But the individualist approach, by attacking gender roles, denying the significance of physiological difference, and condemning existing familial institutions as hopelessly patriarchal, has often simply treated as irrelevant the family roles important to many women. If the individualist framework, with its claim for women’s autonomy could be harmonized with the family oriented concerns of rational feminists, a more fruitful model for contemporary feminist politics could emerge. According to the passage, relational feminists and individualist feminists agree the A laws guaranteeing equal treatment for all citizens regardless of gender should be passed. B gender-based division of labour in society should be eliminated. C same educational and economic opportunities should be available to both sexes. D individual human rights take precedence over most other social claims.
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Self-poisoned in this fashion, civilization looks as though it might easily decline into a kind of premature senility. With a mind almost atrophied by lack of use, unable to entertain itself and grown so wearily uninterested in the readymade distractions offered from without that nothing but the grossest stimulants of an ever-increasing violence and crudity can move it, the democracy of the future will sicken of a chronic and mortal boredom. It will go perhaps, the way the Romans went: the Romans who came at last to lose, precisely as we are doing now, the capacity to distract themselves: the Romans who, like us, lived on readymade entertainments in which they had no participation. Their deadly ennui demanded ever more gladiators more tight rope-walking elephants, more rare and far fetched animals to be slaughtered. Ours would demand no less: but owing to the existence of a few idealist, doesn’t get all it asks for. The most violent forms of entertainment can only be obtained illicitly: to satisfy a taste for slaughter and cruelty you must become a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Let us not despair, however; the force of a boredom clamouring to be alleviated may yet prove too much for the idealists. Why will future democracy be diseased? A Because of the lack of distractions B Because of the lack of entertainments C Because of the degeneration of the mind D Because of idealists
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Self-poisoned in this fashion, civilization looks as though it might easily decline into a kind of premature senility. With a mind almost atrophied by lack of use, unable to entertain itself and grown so wearily uninterested in the readymade distractions offered from without that nothing but the grossest stimulants of an ever-increasing violence and crudity can move it, the democracy of the future will sicken of a chronic and mortal boredom. It will go perhaps, the way the Romans went: the Romans who came at last to lose, precisely as we are doing now, the capacity to distract themselves: the Romans who, like us, lived on readymade entertainments in which they had no participation. Their deadly ennui demanded ever more gladiators more tight rope-walking elephants, more rare and far fetched animals to be slaughtered. Ours would demand no less: but owing to the existence of a few idealist, doesn’t get all it asks for. The most violent forms of entertainment can only be obtained illicitly: to satisfy a taste for slaughter and cruelty you must become a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Let us not despair, however; the force of a boredom clamouring to be alleviated may yet prove too much for the idealists. What does the Reference to Romans imply? A Idealists are responsible for degeneration B Ennui results in decay C Romans wanted entertainment like the modern man D None of these
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Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   Self-poisoned in this fashion, civilization looks as though it might easily decline into a kind of premature senility. With a mind almost atrophied by lack of use, unable to entertain itself and grown so wearily uninterested in the readymade distractions offered from without that nothing but the grossest stimulants of an ever-increasing violence and crudity can move it, the democracy of the future will sicken of a chronic and mortal boredom. It will go perhaps, the way the Romans went: the Romans who came at last to lose, precisely as we are doing now, the capacity to distract themselves: the Romans who, like us, lived on readymade entertainments in which they had no participation. Their deadly ennui demanded ever more gladiators more tight rope-walking elephants, more rare and far fetched animals to be slaughtered. Ours would demand no less: but owing to the existence of a few idealist, doesn’t get all it asks for. The most violent forms of entertainment can only be obtained illicitly: to satisfy a taste for slaughter and cruelty you must become a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Let us not despair, however; the force of a boredom clamouring to be alleviated may yet prove too much for the idealists. What is the inference of the writer? A Boredom will be alleviated B There will be more participation C Civilization it seems will decay D None of these
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