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General Studies I

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2010 Paper

Question
3 out of 150
 

By a regulation in 1793, the District Collector was deprived of his judicial power and made the collecting agent only. What was the reason for such regulation?

A Lord Cornwallis felt that the District Collector’s efficiency of revenue collection would enormously increase without the burden of other work
B Lord Cornwallis felt that judicial power should compulsorily be in the hands of Europeans while Indians can be given the job of revenue collection in the districts
C Lord Cornwallis was alarmed at the extent of power concentrated in the District Collector and felt that such absolute power was undesirable in one person
D The judicial work demanded a deep knowledge of India and a good training in law and Lord Cornwallis felt that District Collector should be only a revenue collector
Ans. C Exp: Cornwallis judicial reforms took the final shape by 1793 and were embodied in the famous Cornwallis Code. The new reforms were based on the principle of separation of powers. Under the influence of the eighteenth century French philospophers, Cornwallis sought to separate the revenue administration from the administration of justice. The Collector was the head of revenue department in a district and also enjoyed extensive judicial and magisterial powers. Cornwallis rightly believed that concentration of all powers in the hands of the Collector in the district retarded the improvement of the country. How could the collector acting as a judge of the Diwani Adalat redress the wrongs done by him as collector or assessor of revenue? Thus, neither the landlords nor the cultivators could regard the Collector as an impartial Judge in revenue cases. The Cornwallis Code divested the Collector of all judicial and magisterial powers and left him with the duty of administration of revenue. A new class of officer called the District Judge was created to preside over the District Civil Court. The District Judge was also given magisterial and police functions.

2010 Paper Flashcard List

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