Loading....
Coupon Accepted Successfully!

General Studies II

Open Flashcards

2013 Paper

Question
63 out of 80
 

Out of 120 applications for a post, 70 are male and 80 have a driver’s licence. What is the ratio between the minimum to maximum number of males having driver’s licence ?



A 1 to 2
B 2 to 3

C 3 to 7
D 5 to 7

Ans. C

2013 Paper Flashcard List

80 flashcards
1)
Read the following four pàssages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   The subject of democracy has become severely muddled because of the way the rhetoric surrounding it has been used in recent years. There is, increasingly, an oddly confused dichotomy between those who want to ‘impose’ democracy on countries in the non-Western world (in these countries’ ‘own interest’, of course) and those who are opposed to such ‘imposition’ (because of the respect for the countries’ ‘own ways’). But the entire language of ‘imposition’, used by both sides, is extraordinarily inappropriate since it makes the implicit assumption that democracy  belongs exclusively to the West, taking ìt to be a quintessentialìy ‘Western’ idea which has originated and flourished only in the West. But the thesis and the pessimism it generates about the possibility of democratic practice in the world would be extremely hard to justify. There were several experiments in local democracy in ancient India. Indeed, in understanding the roots of democracy in the world, we have to take an interest in the history of people participation and public reasoning in different parts of the world. We have to look beyond thinking of democracy only in terms of European and American evolution. We would faìl to understand the pervasive demanda for participatory living, on which Aristotle spoke with far-reaching insight, if we take democracy to be a kind of a specialized cultural product of the West. It cannot, of course, be doubted that the institutional structure of the contemporary practice of democracy is largely the product of European and American experience over the last few centuries. This is extremely important to recognize since these developments in institutional formats were imimnsely innovative and ultimately effective. There can be little doubt that there is a major ‘Western’ achievement here.   Which of the following is closest to the view of democracy as mentioned in the above passagc? A The subject of democracy is a muddle due to a desire to portray it as a Western concept, ‘alien’ to non-Western countries. B The language of imposition of democracy is in appropriate. There is, however, a need to consider this concept in the backdrop of culture of ‘own ways’ of non-Western society. C While democracy is not essentially a Western idea belonging exclusively to the West, the institutional structure of current democratic practices has been their contribution. D None of the statements A., B. and C. given above is correct.
2)
Read the following four pàssages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.   The subject of democracy has become severely muddled because of the way the rhetoric surrounding it has been used in recent years. There is, increasingly, an oddly confused dichotomy between those who want to ‘impose’ democracy on countries in the non-Western world (in these countries’ ‘own interest’, of course) and those who are opposed to such ‘imposition’ (because of the respect for the countries’ ‘own ways’). But the entire language of ‘imposition’, used by both sides, is extraordinarily inappropriate since it makes the implicit assumption that democracy  belongs exclusively to the West, taking ìt to be a quintessentialìy ‘Western’ idea which has originated and flourished only in the West. But the thesis and the pessimism it generates about the possibility of democratic practice in the world would be extremely hard to justify. There were several experiments in local democracy in ancient India. Indeed, in understanding the roots of democracy in the world, we have to take an interest in the history of people participation and public reasoning in different parts of the world. We have to look beyond thinking of democracy only in terms of European and American evolution. We would faìl to understand the pervasive demanda for participatory living, on which Aristotle spoke with far-reaching insight, if we take democracy to be a kind of a specialized cultural product of the West. It cannot, of course, be doubted that the institutional structure of the contemporary practice of democracy is largely the product of European and American experience over the last few centuries. This is extremely important to recognize since these developments in institutional formats were imimnsely innovative and ultimately effective. There can be little doubt that there is a major ‘Western’ achievement here.   With reference to the passage, the following assumptions have been made: i. Many of the non-Western countries are unable to have democracy because they take democracy to be a specialized cultural product of the West. ii. Western countries are always trying to impose democracy on rion-Western countries. Which of the above is/are valid assumption/assumptions ? A i only B ii only C Both i and ii D Neither i nor ii
3)
  Corporate governance is based on principles such as conducting the business wìth all integrity and fairness, being transparent with regard to all transactions, making all the necessary disclosures and decisions, complying with all the laws of the land, accountability and responsibility towards the stakeholders and commitment to conducting business in an ethical manner. Another point which is highlighted on corporate governance is the need for those in control to be able to distìnguish between what are personal and corporate funds while managing a company. Fundamentally, there is a level of confldence that is associated with a company that is known to have good corporate governance. The presence of an active group of ìndependent directors on the board contributes a great deal towards ensuring confidence in the market. Corporate governance is known to be one of the criteria that foreign institutional investors are increasingly depending on when decìding on which companies to invest in. It is also known to have a positive influence on the share price of the company. Having a cìean image on the corporate governance front could also make it easier for companies to source capital at more reasonable costs. Unfortunately, corporate governance often becomes the centre of discussion only after the exposure of a large scam. According to the passage, which of the following should be the practice/practices in good corporate governance ? i. Companies should always comply with labour and tax laws of the land. ii. Every company in the country should have a government representative as one of the Independent directors on the board to ensure transparency. iii. The manager of a company should never invest his personal funds in the company. Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A i onlyB ii and iii only C i and iii onlyD i, ii and iii
4)
  Corporate governance is based on principles such as conducting the business wìth all integrity and fairness, being transparent with regard to all transactions, making all the necessary disclosures and decisions, complying with all the laws of the land, accountability and responsibility towards the stakeholders and commitment to conducting business in an ethical manner. Another point which is highlighted on corporate governance is the need for those in control to be able to distìnguish between what are personal and corporate funds while managing a company. Fundamentally, there is a level of confldence that is associated with a company that is known to have good corporate governance. The presence of an active group of ìndependent directors on the board contributes a great deal towards ensuring confidence in the market. Corporate governance is known to be one of the criteria that foreign institutional investors are increasingly depending on when decìding on which companies to invest in. It is also known to have a positive influence on the share price of the company. Having a cìean image on the corporate governance front could also make it easier for companies to source capital at more reasonable costs. Unfortunately, corporate governance often becomes the centre of discussion only after the exposure of a large scam. According to the passage, which of the following is/are the major benefìt/benefìts of good corporate governance ? i. Good corporate governance leads to increase in share price of the company. ii. A company with good corporate governance always increases its business turnover rapidly. iii. Good corporate governance is the main criterion for foreign ìnstitutional investors when they decide to buy a company. Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A i onlyB ii and iii only C i and iii onlyD i, ii and iii
5)
6)
7)
A number of empirical studies find that farmers are risk-averse, though only moderately in many cases. There is also evidence to show that farmers’ risk aversion results in cropping patterns and input use designed to reduce risk rather than to maximize income. Farmers adopt a number of strategies to manage and cope with agricultural risks. These include practices like crop and field diversification, non-farm employment, storage of stocks and strategic migration of family members. There are also institutions ranging from share tenancy to kinship, extended family and informal credit agencies. One major obstacle to risk sharing by farmers is that the same type of risks can affect a large number of farmers in the region. Empirical studies show that the traditional methods are not adequate. Hence there is a need for policy interventions, especially measures that cut across geographìcal regions. Policies may aim at tackling agrìcultural risks directly or indirectly. Examples of risk-specifìc policies are crop insurance, price stabilization and the development of varieties resistant to pests and diseases. Policies which affect risk indirectly are irrigation, subsidized credit and access to information. No single rìsk-specific policy ìs sufficient to reduce risk and is without side-effects, whereas policies not specific to risk influence the general situation and affect risks only indirectly Crop insurance, as a policy measure to tackle agrìcultural risk directly, deserves careful consideration in the Indian context and in many other developing countries-because the majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture and in many areas yield variability ìs the predominant cause of their income instabilìty. The need for policy intervention to mitigate risks in agriculture is because A farmers are extremely risk-averse. B farmers do not know how to mitigate risks. C the methods adopted by farmers and exìsting risk sharing institutions are not adequate. D majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture.
8)
A number of empirical studies find that farmers are risk-averse, though only moderately in many cases. There is also evidence to show that farmers’ risk aversion results in cropping patterns and input use designed to reduce risk rather than to maximize income. Farmers adopt a number of strategies to manage and cope with agricultural risks. These include practices like crop and field diversification, non-farm employment, storage of stocks and strategic migration of family members. There are also institutions ranging from share tenancy to kinship, extended family and informal credit agencies. One major obstacle to risk sharing by farmers is that the same type of risks can affect a large number of farmers in the region. Empirical studies show that the traditional methods are not adequate. Hence there is a need for policy interventions, especially measures that cut across geographìcal regions. Policies may aim at tackling agrìcultural risks directly or indirectly. Examples of risk-specifìc policies are crop insurance, price stabilization and the development of varieties resistant to pests and diseases. Policies which affect risk indirectly are irrigation, subsidized credit and access to information. No single rìsk-specific policy ìs sufficient to reduce risk and is without side-effects, whereas policies not specific to risk influence the general situation and affect risks only indirectly Crop insurance, as a policy measure to tackle agrìcultural risk directly, deserves careful consideration in the Indian context and in many other developing countries-because the majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture and in many areas yield variability ìs the predominant cause of their income instabilìty. Which of the following observations emerges from the above passage ? A One can identify a single policy that can reduce risk without any side-effect. B No single risk-specific policy is sufficient to reduce agricultural risk. C Policies which affect rìsk indirectly can eliminate it. D Government’s policy intervention can mitigate agricultural risk completely.
9)
A number of empirical studies find that farmers are risk-averse, though only moderately in many cases. There is also evidence to show that farmers’ risk aversion results in cropping patterns and input use designed to reduce risk rather than to maximize income. Farmers adopt a number of strategies to manage and cope with agricultural risks. These include practices like crop and field diversification, non-farm employment, storage of stocks and strategic migration of family members. There are also institutions ranging from share tenancy to kinship, extended family and informal credit agencies. One major obstacle to risk sharing by farmers is that the same type of risks can affect a large number of farmers in the region. Empirical studies show that the traditional methods are not adequate. Hence there is a need for policy interventions, especially measures that cut across geographìcal regions. Policies may aim at tackling agrìcultural risks directly or indirectly. Examples of risk-specifìc policies are crop insurance, price stabilization and the development of varieties resistant to pests and diseases. Policies which affect risk indirectly are irrigation, subsidized credit and access to information. No single rìsk-specific policy ìs sufficient to reduce risk and is without side-effects, whereas policies not specific to risk influence the general situation and affect risks only indirectly Crop insurance, as a policy measure to tackle agrìcultural risk directly, deserves careful consideration in the Indian context and in many other developing countries-because the majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture and in many areas yield variability ìs the predominant cause of their income instabilìty. Consider the following statements : (i) A primary group is relatively smaller in size (ii) Intimacy is an essentìal charàcteristic of a primary group. (iiì) A family may be an example of a primary group. In the light of the above statements, which one of the following is true ? A All families are primary groups. B All primary groups are families. C A group of smaller size is always a primary group. D Members of a primary group know each other intimately.
10)
A number of empirical studies find that farmers are risk-averse, though only moderately in many cases. There is also evidence to show that farmers’ risk aversion results in cropping patterns and input use designed to reduce risk rather than to maximize income. Farmers adopt a number of strategies to manage and cope with agricultural risks. These include practices like crop and field diversification, non-farm employment, storage of stocks and strategic migration of family members. There are also institutions ranging from share tenancy to kinship, extended family and informal credit agencies. One major obstacle to risk sharing by farmers is that the same type of risks can affect a large number of farmers in the region. Empirical studies show that the traditional methods are not adequate. Hence there is a need for policy interventions, especially measures that cut across geographìcal regions. Policies may aim at tackling agrìcultural risks directly or indirectly. Examples of risk-specifìc policies are crop insurance, price stabilization and the development of varieties resistant to pests and diseases. Policies which affect risk indirectly are irrigation, subsidized credit and access to information. No single rìsk-specific policy ìs sufficient to reduce risk and is without side-effects, whereas policies not specific to risk influence the general situation and affect risks only indirectly Crop insurance, as a policy measure to tackle agrìcultural risk directly, deserves careful consideration in the Indian context and in many other developing countries-because the majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture and in many areas yield variability ìs the predominant cause of their income instabilìty. Four frìends, a, b, c and s distribute some money among themselves in such a manner that a gets one less than b, b gets 5 more than d, d gets 3 more than b. Who gets the smallest amount ? A a B b C c D d
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
  Financial markets in India have acquired greater depth and liquidity over the years. Steady reforms sìnce 1991 have led to growing linkages and integration of the Indian economy and its financial system with the global economy. Weak global economic prospects and continuing uncertain-ties in the international financial markets therefore, have had their impact on the emerging market economies. Sovereign risk concerns, particularly in the Euro area, affected financial markets for the greater part of the year, with the contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem spreading to India and other economies by way of higher-than-normal levels of volatility. The fundìng constraints in international financial markets could impact both the availability and cost of foreign funding for banks and corporates. Since the Indian financial system is bank dominated, banks’ ability to withstand stress is critical to overall financial stability. Indian banks, however, rcmain robust, notwithstanding a decline in capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and a rise in non-performing asset levels in the recent past. Capital adequacy levels remain above the regulatory requirements. The financial market infrastructure continues to function without any major disruption. With further globalization, consolidation, deregulation, and diversification of the financial system, the banking business may become more complex and riskier. Issues like risk and liquidity management and enhancing skill therefore assume greater signifìcance.   According to the passage, the fìnancial markets in the emerging market economies ìncluding India had the adverse impact in recent years due to i. weak global economic prospects. ii. uncertainties in the international fìnancial markets. iii. sovereign risk concerns in the Euro area. iv. bad monsoons and the resultant crop loss. Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A i and ii only B i, ii and iii C ii and iii only D ii, iii and iv
25)
  Financial markets in India have acquired greater depth and liquidity over the years. Steady reforms sìnce 1991 have led to growing linkages and integration of the Indian economy and its financial system with the global economy. Weak global economic prospects and continuing uncertain-ties in the international financial markets therefore, have had their impact on the emerging market economies. Sovereign risk concerns, particularly in the Euro area, affected financial markets for the greater part of the year, with the contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem spreading to India and other economies by way of higher-than-normal levels of volatility. The fundìng constraints in international financial markets could impact both the availability and cost of foreign funding for banks and corporates. Since the Indian financial system is bank dominated, banks’ ability to withstand stress is critical to overall financial stability. Indian banks, however, rcmain robust, notwithstanding a decline in capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and a rise in non-performing asset levels in the recent past. Capital adequacy levels remain above the regulatory requirements. The financial market infrastructure continues to function without any major disruption. With further globalization, consolidation, deregulation, and diversification of the financial system, the banking business may become more complex and riskier. Issues like risk and liquidity management and enhancing skill therefore assume greater signifìcance.   The Indian fìnancial markets are affected by global changes mainly due to the A increased inflow of remittances from abroad. B enormous increase in the foreign exchange reserves. C growing global linkages and integration of the Indian fìnancial markets D contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem.
26)
  Financial markets in India have acquired greater depth and liquidity over the years. Steady reforms sìnce 1991 have led to growing linkages and integration of the Indian economy and its financial system with the global economy. Weak global economic prospects and continuing uncertain-ties in the international financial markets therefore, have had their impact on the emerging market economies. Sovereign risk concerns, particularly in the Euro area, affected financial markets for the greater part of the year, with the contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem spreading to India and other economies by way of higher-than-normal levels of volatility. The fundìng constraints in international financial markets could impact both the availability and cost of foreign funding for banks and corporates. Since the Indian financial system is bank dominated, banks’ ability to withstand stress is critical to overall financial stability. Indian banks, however, rcmain robust, notwithstanding a decline in capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and a rise in non-performing asset levels in the recent past. Capital adequacy levels remain above the regulatory requirements. The financial market infrastructure continues to function without any major disruption. With further globalization, consolidation, deregulation, and diversification of the financial system, the banking business may become more complex and riskier. Issues like risk and liquidity management and enhancing skill therefore assume greater signifìcance.   According to the passage, in the Indian fìnancial system, banks’ ability to withstand stress is critical to ensure overall fìnancial stability because Indian fìnancial system is A controlled by the Government of India. B less integrated with banks. C controlled by Reserve Bank of India. D dominated by banks.
27)
  Financial markets in India have acquired greater depth and liquidity over the years. Steady reforms sìnce 1991 have led to growing linkages and integration of the Indian economy and its financial system with the global economy. Weak global economic prospects and continuing uncertain-ties in the international financial markets therefore, have had their impact on the emerging market economies. Sovereign risk concerns, particularly in the Euro area, affected financial markets for the greater part of the year, with the contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem spreading to India and other economies by way of higher-than-normal levels of volatility. The fundìng constraints in international financial markets could impact both the availability and cost of foreign funding for banks and corporates. Since the Indian financial system is bank dominated, banks’ ability to withstand stress is critical to overall financial stability. Indian banks, however, rcmain robust, notwithstanding a decline in capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and a rise in non-performing asset levels in the recent past. Capital adequacy levels remain above the regulatory requirements. The financial market infrastructure continues to function without any major disruption. With further globalization, consolidation, deregulation, and diversification of the financial system, the banking business may become more complex and riskier. Issues like risk and liquidity management and enhancing skill therefore assume greater signifìcance.   Risk and liquidity management assumes more importance in the Indian banking system in future due to i. further globalization. ii. more consolidation and deregulation of the fìnancial system. iii. further diversification of the fìnancial system. iv. more fìnancial inclusion in the economy. Select the correct answer usìng the codes given below: A i, ii and iiiiB ii, iii and iv C i and ii onlyD iii and iv only
28)
29)
30)
31)
32)
33)
34)
35)
36)
37)
  The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolìd manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred in a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation. The excess input of nutrients, bòth nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many ‘healthy’ oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloom-forming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situatìons, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation. The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge ‘dead zones’ in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killìng virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km’ in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer. According to the passage, why should the dìscharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses be restricted ? i. Losing nutrients in this way is not a good practice economically. ii. Watercourses do not contain the microorganisms that can decompose organic components of agricultural slurry. iii. The dìscharge may lead to the eutrophication of water bodies. Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A i onlyB ii and iii only C i and iii onlyD i, ii and iii
38)
  The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolìd manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred in a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation. The excess input of nutrients, bòth nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many ‘healthy’ oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloom-forming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situatìons, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation. The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge ‘dead zones’ in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killìng virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km’ in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer. The passage refers to the conversion of “pollutant to fertilizer”. What is pollutant and what ìs fertilizer in this context ? A Decomposed organic component of slurry is pollutant and microorganisms in soil constitute fertilizer. B Discharged agricultural slurry is pollutant and decomposed slurry in soil is fertilizer. C Sprayed slurry is pollutant and watercourse is fertilizer. D None of the above expressions is correct in this context.
39)
  The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolìd manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred in a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation. The excess input of nutrients, bòth nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many ‘healthy’ oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloom-forming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situatìons, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation. The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge ‘dead zones’ in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killìng virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km’ in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer. According to the passage, what are the effects of indiscriminate use of fertilizers ? i. Addition of pollutants to the soil and water, ii. Destruction of decomposer microorganisms in soil. iii. Nutrient enrichment of water bodies. iv. Creation of algal blooms Select the correct answer from the codes given below : A i, ii and iii only B i only C ii and iv only D i, ii, iii and iv
40)
  The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolìd manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred in a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation. The excess input of nutrients, bòth nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many ‘healthy’ oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloom-forming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situatìons, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation. The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge ‘dead zones’ in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killìng virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km’ in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer. What is/are the characteristics of a water body with cultural eutrophication ? i. Loss of ecosystern services ii. Loss of flora and fauna iii. Loss of mineral nutrients Select the correct answer using the codes given below: A i only B i and ii only C ii and iii only D i, ii and iii
41)
  The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolìd manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred in a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation. The excess input of nutrients, bòth nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many ‘healthy’ oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloom-forming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situatìons, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation. The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge ‘dead zones’ in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killìng virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km’ in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer. What is the central theme of this passage ? A Appropriate Iegislation is essential to protect the environment. B Modern agriculture is responsible for the destruction of environment. C Improper waste disposal from agriculture can destroy the aquatic ecosystems. D Use of chemical fertilizers is undesirable in agriculture.
42)
43)
44)
45)
46)
47)
48)
49)
50)
51)
52)
53)
54)
55)
56)
57)
58)
59)
60)
61)
62)
63)
64)
65)
66)
67)
68)
69)
70)
71)
72)
73)
74)
75)
76)
77)
78)
79)
80)