Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Paragraph 3


The passengers were waiting for their flight. “Hello ji, what is your name?” Santa Singh asked his neighbour. “Yashwant Sinha.” Santa’s eyes dilated to the size of a dinosaur’s egg and he got up and pulled Sinha from his seat and hugged him tightly. “My brother!” he kept saying. His voice dripped so much with love that there was soon a puddle around them.

The Smothered Sinha was almost dead by the time Santa released him and beamed, “Singh-Sinha, bhai-bhai!’


Both ‘Singh’ and ‘Sinha’ are derived from the Sanskrit sinh, lion. A similar ‘gh’- ‘h’ interchange happened in the ghel- root too; that is how we got our word Hari, which we use so adoringly for Krishna. The IE ‘l’ usually becomes an ‘r’ in Sanskrit, so that explains the second part of Hari. A diamond is called a hira probably because of its shine. The Sanskrit word for gold, hiranya, too is from this root. The Hindu Purnas tell the story of Prahlad. His father, who was ultimately slain by Narsimha (the man-lion), was Hiranyakashap, meaning ‘the golden-haired one.’ The Sanskrit word for a deer is hiran because of its golden skin.


Latin  fulgere   to flash

There is a whole family of ‘fl-‘ words which convey the idea of shining or burning. Let us start from the fulgere words:

​The fl-that flames and flashes-1:
 Refulgent, effulgent

The fl-that flames and flashes-2: fulminate


Fulgere meant a flash of light, and hence the image we saw in our mind was that of lightning or a thunderbolt. Other words close to it convey more continuous light. They are flagrare, ‘to burn’ and flamma, ‘a flame.’ These roots are found in the words below:

The fl-that flames and flashes-3: flagrant, conflagration

The fl-that flames and flashes-4: Flamboyant, flambeau, inflammation


Latin  ardere   to burn

Love’s ardour
 burns some

Some are burnt by arson

The arid earth is burnt too

It’s scorched by the sultry sun


Qadum Bey burnt each day, each moment in the separation of his wife. She had been kidnapped by an evil magician and Qadum had been wandering in search of her ever since. One day, he reached a land that was absolutely arid. It seemed so thirsty for water that fissures had cracked open everywhere, hoping to get at least some drops of water. The trees too were singed. Not a single leaf remained on any tree. The bleak landscape reflected the state of his mind, Qadum thought. He was beginning to feel dizzy under the scorching sun. Just then, two monstrous serpents swooped upon him from the sky. Those serpents were more than twenty feet long each and horror of horrors, exhaled fire!

Greek  kaustos   burning, burnt

The words caustic, holocaust and cauterize are from this root.


Latin calor  heat

In Latin 'heat' meaning is 'calor'.


Chilled, Arpit chafed his hands. The stiff collar of his shirt chafed his neck, but he felt more chafed at the delay caused by the snowstorm. He grumbled and grunted and groused all over the room, hoping to attract his wife’s sympathy, but she kept on knitting contentedly and hardly looked up. Her nonchalance infuriated him. Did she not bother about him at all? He felt like shaking her up and asking. But he did not do that. Because, the answer would have abashed him—‘No’. He had married her despite her unwillingness, believing that the heat of his passion would ignite her; it had been four years and she had not even warmed.


Dilate: (v) to cause to expand.

: (v) to suffocate.

: (v) killed.

: (adj) shining brightly.

The song Yeh chaand sa roshan chehraa is sung in the praise of a girl whose face is as refulgent as the moon.

: (adj) shining brightly.

The sky was filled with numerous kites in green, red, blue, yellow and other effulgent colours.

: (v) explode

  • “Who are they to decide what we should watch or not? Are we kids?” The angry students fulminated against the Vice Chancellor’s decision to restrict all websites with adult content on the university campus.
  • Newspaper articles fulminated about the government’s move to restrict freedom of the press.

Flagrant: (adj) open; glaring.

  • The police dared not touch the minister’s son though he had built his factory in flagrant violation of the laws.

Conflagration: (n) great fire.

  • A fire broke out in an oil well. The fire engines soon reached the spot but the oil burned with great fury and it was impossible to arrest the conflagration until the oil in the well had been entirely consumed.

Flamboyant: (adj) showy; stylish; very noticeable.

  • She coloured her hair a flamboyant red.
  • The flamboyant flowers in the garden brightened the day and the spirit of everybody who passed by them.

Inflammation: (n) state of being on fire.

  • He was arrested for his inflammatory speeches against the minority communities.
    Oil is an inflammable liquid.
  • Hepatitis is also known as ‘liver inflammation.’ An inflammation that occurs in the joint is called arthritis.

Ardent: (adj) very pasisonate.

Origin: a ardere, to burn.

  • Damodar was a Maharashtrian but he wrote his poems and short stories in Gujarati, and was so ardent about the language he wrote in that the Gujaratis proudly called him “Savai Gujarati,” or “One-and-a-quarter-times Gujarati,” more Gujarati than the Gujaratis.

Arson: (n) act of setting things on fire.

Origin: a ardere, to burn.

  • Hundreds of labourers went on rampage and resorted to arson when a fellow-labourer, who had been arrested a day before on charges of dacoity, died in police custody. They burnt three public roadways buses and a police jeep.

Arid: (adj) extremely dry.

Origin: a ardere, to burn.

: (v) to burn.

  • A glass of plain, cold water is the first thing we reach for after being out in the scorching summer sun.
  • We can replace ‘scorching summer sun’ with ‘searing summer sun’ in the sentence above.

Sultry: (adj) very hot and humid.

: (v) to burn slightly, or only on the surface.

(adj) dull, colourless, hopeless

Origin: Germanic blanc, white. The other words from the root blanc are ‘blank’, ‘bleach’ and ‘blanch

: (n) snake; (adj): serpentine: snake-like

Origin: Related with the Sanskrit sarp, snake.

  • The serpentine queue at the bill counter crawled forward very slowly.

Caustic: (adj) capable of causing burns.

  • Stung by his bhabhi’s caustic remarks, the unemployed young man stormed out of the house, and vowed to himself that he would not set his foot in the house again till he got a better job than his elder brother- her husband.

Holocaust: (n) large scale destruction by fire; large scale destruction.

  • Should the world be plunged into nuclear holocaust, the only one to survive it would be the cockroach.

Cauterize: (v) to burn a tissue.

  • In places where medical treatment is not available, people cauterize their wounds to stop bleeding and prevent infection. A flat metal instrument, such as a knife, is cleaned and heated over fire (but not so much that it becomes red) and then, is pressed against the wound while taking care not to burn the healthy tissue around it.

Chafe: (v) to wear away by rubbing; to annoy or irritate.

Origin: L cal facere, to make hot => ‘to heat, rub’

: (v) complain.

: (n) indifference; lack of concern or care.

Origin: L calere, to be warm Fr chaloir. So, Fr nonchaloir ment ‘lack of warmth’

: (v) embarrass

  • Related with bashful, shy.

Ignite: (v) to set on fire.

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name