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The C Preprocessor is not part of the compiler, but is a separate step in the compilation process. In simplistic terms, a C Preprocessor is just a text substitution tool and they instruct compiler to do required pre-processing before actual compilation. We'll refer to the C Preprocessor as the CPP.

All preprocessor commands begin with a pound symbol (#). It must be the first nonblank character, and for readability, a preprocessor directive should begin in first column. Following section lists down all important preprocessor directives:

Directive Description
#define Substitutes a preprocessor macro
#include Inserts a particular header from another file
#undef Undefines a preprocessor macro
#ifdef Returns true if this macro is defined
#ifndef Returns true if this macro is not defined
#if Tests if a compile time condition is true
#else The alternative for #if
#elif #else an #if in one statement
#endif Ends preprocessor conditional
#error Prints error message on stderr
#pragma Issues special commands to the compiler, using a standardized method

Predefined Macros

ANSI C defines a number of macros. Although each one is available for your use in programming, the predefined macros should not be directly modified.
Macro Description
__DATE__ The current date as a character literal in "MMM DD YYYY" format
__TIME__ The current time as a character literal in "HH:MM:SS" format
__FILE__ This contains the current filename as a string literal.
__LINE__ This contains the current line number as a decimal constant.
__STDC__ Defined as 1 when the compiler complies with the ANSI standard.

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