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Coercion means compelling a person to enter into a contract under a pressure or threat. According to section 15, coercion is:



1. Committing, or threatening to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian penal code (45 of 1860). It is immaterial whether the Indian penal code is, or is not, in force in the place where the coercion is employed.

2. Unlawful detaining or threatening to detain any property.

3. Threat to commit suicide: the threat to commit suicide amounts to coercion.

4. Threat to file suit: The threat to file suit does not amount to coercion unless the suit is on false charge.

Party to Coercion:

Coercion may proceed from any person even from a stranger to a contract. It may be directed against any person and not necessarily against the other contracting party. It is irrelevant as to whether IPC is in force or not at time or place where coercion is employed.

 Effects Of Coercion:

1. An agreement caused by coercion is voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so obtained.

2. The person to whom money has been paid or anything delivered under coercion must repay or return it.

Burden Of Proof:

Lies on the party intended to avoid it.

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