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Theory of Demographic Transition

India is passing through the phase of population explosion (2nd stage). Population explosion is a transitory phase according to the theory of demographic transition. This theory says that every country passes through three stages.

Stages of demographic transition

Population of every country passes through 3 different stages.
Stage I
  • Both, birth and death rate are high
  • Hence, population remains stable
Stage II
  •  Birth rate comes down slowly, death rate comes down heavily
  •  This stage is called “population explosion” as population increases at a very high rate
Stage III
  •  Birth rate and death rate are low

Stage 1

In this stage, both, birth rate and death rate are high. Hence, population remains stable. The backward economies will be in this stage because of their poor standard of living, production capacity and poor medical facilities.
Birth rate is high because:
  • People are illiterate
  • Poverty is wide spread
  • Early marriages
  • Superstitions, beliefs, etc for having big families
Death rate is high due to
  • Malnutrition
  • Lack of medical facilities
  • Absence of medical conditions

Stage 2

In this stage birth rate comes down slowly, but death rate comes down heavily. This stage is also known as the stage of ‘Population Explosion’ as population increases at a very high rate during this stage.
Death rate comes down due to
  • Better medical facilities
  • Improved standard of living
Birth rate remains high because
  • Social beliefs and customs do not change immediately

Stage 3

In this stage birth rate and death rate are low.
Birth rate is low due to
  • Improved education
  • Importance given to smaller families and better standard of living
  • Old social customs giving place to new idea
Death rate is low due to improved
  • Medical facilities
  • Hygienic conditions
  • Standard of living

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