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Government programmes for poverty alleviation

Alleviating poverty and creating employment opportunities are the need of the hour to enhance standard of living. The plan strategies to achieve these objectives can be broadly divided into three phases. In the first phase, the emphasis was on Growth through improvement in infrastructure and heavy industries. In the second phase, starting from 5th FYP, several programmes to alleviate poverty and to create employment opportunities were formed. In the third and final phase, the emphasis of planning is on ‘growth’ and ‘poverty alleviation’ as two complementary actions. Various programmes introduced in the series are:

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

Launch: 2006 (in few selected districts) later in 2008 extended to other places also.
Objective: enhancing livelihood security of households in rural areas by providing manual work for at least 100 days to every household whose adult member volunteer.
Result: during 2012-13, more than 4.39 crore households were provided employment.

Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)

Launch: April 1999. By integrating IRDP and MWS (integrated rural development programme and Million wells scheme). It is a self- employment programme.
  • To bring poor above poverty line by providing themselves with income generating assets.
  • Till February, 2012, about 168 lakh swarozgaries (self-employed) have been assisted.
  • Now it is renamed as National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM). Now it is renamed as ‘Aajeevika’.

The Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)

Launch: December 1997 by merging other poverty alleviation programmes viz. Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY), Urban Basic Services Programmes (UBSP) and Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme (PMIUPEP).
  • To provide gainful employment to the urban unemployed or underemployed poor by encouraging the setting up of self-employment ventures or provision of wage employment
  • In 2012-13, more than 4,00,000 beneficiaries were benefited

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)

Launch: December, 2000
  • To provide road connectivity through all-weather roads to all eligible unconnected habitations in rural areas by the end of the 10th plan
  • By November 2010, a total length of 3 lakh km. of road works had been completed

Indira Awas Yojana (IAY)

  • To give financial assistance for construction of houses to be given to the poor
  • Around 21 lakh and 34 lakh houses were constructed during 2008-09 and 2009- 10 respectively

Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojana (SGRY)

The earlier programmes of the Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) and Jawahar Gram Sammridhi Yojana (JGSY) have been merged with this programme.
  • To provide wage employment in rural areas
  • To ensure food security
  • To create a durable community, social and economic asset

National Food For Work Programme (NFFWP)

The ongoing programmes of Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojana (SGRY), National Food For Work Programme (NFFWP) were merged.
  • To intensify the generation of supplementary wage employment
  • To enhance the livelihood security of the people in rural areas by generating wage employment through works that develop the infrastructure base of the area
  • To enable every state to make a scheme for providing not less than 100 days of guaranteed employment in a financial year to every household in the rural areas covered under the scheme and whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work subject to certain conditions laid down
  • During 2007-08, 3.29 crore households were covered under the scheme
  • During 2008-09, more than 4.47 crore households were provided employment under the scheme

Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)

Launch: 1973 1974
  • To tackle the special problems faced by drought prone areas

Desert Development Programme (DDP)

Launch: 1977 1978
  • To mitigate the adverse effects of desertification

Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP)

Launch: 1989 1990
  • To develop the waste lands or degraded lands

Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY)

Launch: 2001
  • To facilitate the construction and up gradation of dwelling units for the slum dwellers
  • To provide a healthy and enabling urban environment through community toilets

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