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Major Crops

A variety of food and cash crops are grown in India due to the presence of

  • Different varities of soil
  • Different climatic conditions as the country is vast

Rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton, jute etc. Are the main crops grown in our country.

Crop Characteristic features Soil Climatic condition Distribution
Rice Staple food crop of India.

India is the second largest producer after China.


Alluvial Kharif crop.
Temp. - anove 250 c
Rainfall - above 100cms
Also grown in the areas of less rainfall with the help of irrigation
Plains of North, North-eastern and the coastal areas.
Rice producing states.
West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh,
Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Assam etc.
Wheat Second main food crop and staple
Food crop of North India.


Rabi crop

Requires cool growing season and bright sunshine during harvest.

Rainfall - 50 - 75 cms

Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh.
Millets Jowar, Bajra and Ragi are the important millets grown in India.

Millets have high nutrition value.

Sandy and Black

Ragi -Red, black & lateritic soils

Jowar - Rain fed crop Rainfall - 60 -70 cms. Bajra

Temp - 250 c and 350c.
Rainfall - 35 to 50cm

Temp - 270 C
Raimfall - 50 cms

Jowar - Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh.

Bajra - Rajasthan, uttat Pradesh,  Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana

Ragi - Karnataka, Tamil Nadu,  Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal,  Sikkim and Jharkhand.

Maize Food and fodder crop.

Production of this crop has increased in India due to the use HYV seeds, fertilizers and irrigation.



Kharif crop
Temp. - 210 - 270c
Rainfall - 50 - 75 cms
Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar  and Andhra Pradesh
Pulses India ia the largest producer and consumer

Major source of protien

Tur, Urad, Moong, Masur, Peas and Gram are the major pulses grown in India.

Loamy Kharif and Rabi
Need less moisture and
Can survive in dry
Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and  Karnataka.
Sugarcane Tropical as well as sub-tropical crop.

India is the second largest producer of sugarcane in the world.

Needs manual labour for all the processes involved in the cultivation.




Temp - 210 - 270 c
Rainfall - 75 - 100cms.
Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.
Groundnut Accounts for more than 50% of the Oilseeds produced in the country.
Loamy Temp. - 21- 270c
Rainfall - 50 cms.
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra.
Tea This beverage crop was introduced by the British

Grows well in tropical and subtropical climates.

Tea cultivation requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour.



Requires warm and moist free climate. Frequent showers evenly Distributed throughout the year Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri, districts of West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Coffee India produces anout 4% of the worlds coffee production.

It is known for its quality.

Arabica variety of coffee is produced here.

Mountain Temp. - 15-24ºC
Rainfall - 150 - 250 cms
Nilgiris in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Rubber An equatorial crop grown in tropical and sub tropical regions also.

It is an important industrial raw material.

Laterite Temp. - anove 250 c
Rainfall - above 200 cms.
Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar islands.
Cotton Origin of this crop is from India.

India is the 3rd largest producer of cotton in the world.

Black Kahrif crop

210 frost free days with bright sunshine.

Rainfall - 45 - 50 cms.

Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya

Pradesh, karnataka, Andhra

Pradesh, Tamil Nadu etc.

Jute Jute is kwon as the golden fibre.

Used for a making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets etc.

Jute is getting replaced by synthetic fibres due to the low cost and

Durablity of these artificial fibres.

Alluvial Temp. - Above 270c.
Rainfall - 170 to 250 cms.
West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya.



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