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Countries and the Challenges they Faced

Case and context

Description of the Challenges for Democracy in that Situation

Chile: General Pinochet's government defeated, but military still in control of many institutions

Establishing civilian control over all governmental institutions, holding the first multi-party elections, recalling all political leaders from exile.

Poland: After the first success of Solidarity, the government imposed martial law and banned solidarity

Holding general elections and dissolving military rule. Ensuring free and fair elections

Ghana: Just attained independence, Nkrumah elected president

New policies and programmes should be formed. An effective administrative government should to set up with a powerful judiciary.

Myanmar: Suu Kyi under house arrest for more than 15 years, army rulers getting global acceptance

Multi party government should be set up.

Suu Kyi should be released and democracy should be established

International organisations: US as the only super power disregards the UN and takes unilateral action

Other nations in the UN should be given equal rights as the US. This will ensure that decisions are not taken unilaterally by the US

Mexico: Second free election after the defeat of PRI in 2000; defeated candidate alleges rigging

To ensure free and fair election to avoid rigging.

China: Communist Party adopts economic reforms but maintains monopoly over political power

Government institutions have to be democratized. Power should be decentralized and democratic values should be installed

Pakistan: General Musharraf holds referendum, allegations of fraud in voters' list

Military rule has to be dissolved and free elections should be held. A multi party system has to be established

Iraq: Widespread sectarian violence as the new government fails to establish its authority

A common consensus should be held among all the ethic groups and a common platform should be evolved paving way for democratic elections

South Africa: Mandela retires from active politics, pressure on his successor Mbeki to withdraw some concessions given to White minority

All political parties should resort to deliberations to arrive at a common solution to the problems

US, Guantanamo Bay: UN Secretary General calls this a violation of international law, US refused to respond

Negotiations have to be held with the concerned country

Saudi Arabia: Women not allowed to take part in public activities, no freedom of religion for minorities

The policies of the government should be change to include women in the process of decision making. Only this will bring about a fair balanced society

Yugoslavia: Ethnic tension between Serbs and Albanians on the rise in the province of Kosovo. Yugoslavia disintergrated

General elections, on a multi party format should be held. The differences between ethic groups should be solved amicably

Belgium: One round of constitutional change taken place, but the Dutch speakers not satisfied; they want more autonomy

The government should first ensure if more autonomy will be for the well fare of the people. Then necessary measures have

Sri Lanka: The peace talks between the government and the LTTE break down, renewed violenc

The first challenge will be to stop violence and bring the ethics groups to the negotiation table

US, Civil Rights: Blacks have won equal rights, but are still poor, less educated and marginalised

Making new policies to give them equal rights and make education compulsory for the marginalized

Northern Ireland: The civil war has ended but Catholics and Protestants yet to develop trust

Free and fair elections should be held. All religious groups should be involved in the government forming process

Nepal: Constituent Assembly about to be elected, unrest in Terai areas, Maoists have not surrendered arms

Militancy should be controlled. Negotiations among different groups should be held

Bolivia: Morales, a supporter of water struggle, becomes Prime Minister, MNCs threaten to leave the country

Differences with the MNCs should be solved

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