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  • Reproduction may be asexual or sexual. Asexual reproduction involves one parent and sexual reproduction involves two parents.
  • Vegetative reproduction is a type of asexual reproduction and has great application in agriculture, horticulture, etc.
  • Tissue culture is the technique of growing whole plants from a few cells or even a single cell.
  • Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
  • In plants, fertilization is followed by seed and fruit formation. The seed contains the embryo that is to develop into a new plant.
  • In higher animals such as human beings the male and female individuals attain sexual maturity during a period called puberty.
  • The human female goes through the process of menstrual cycle, i.e. the release of the ovum from the ovary.
  • The basic features of growth and development are similar in plants and animals and are controlled by hormones.

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