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  • All living things respond to changes Responsiveness is the act of sensing a stimulus and responding to it.
  • Autotrophic nutrition involves the use of an external energy source like sunlight, chlorophyll and raw materials to synthesize complex organic food by a process called photosynthesis All green plants and some green algae that have chlorophyll are called autotrophs.
  • Stomata are pores, which are present more in number in the lower epidermis of leaves and are used for gaseous exchange.
  • Chlorophyll consists of four types. They are chlorophyll a and b which are green. The other two are xanthophylls and carotene which are yellow and orange, respectively.
  • Parasitic organisms are those which live at an expense of a other organism, called the host. Eg: Liverfluke
  • Saliva contain an enzyme called salivary amylase or ptyalin, which acts on starch and converts it into simpler molecule called maltose.
  • The digestive system of most animals consists mainly of a long continuous tube called the alimentary canal or digestive tract.
  • Breathing involves inspiration and expiration.
  • The lungs are enclosed in a double layered membrane called pleura. The respiratory tract is lined internally with a mucous membrane.
  • The movement of air in and out of the lungs and the distribution of air within the lungs are referred to as ventilation of lungs.
  • The BCG (Bacille Calmette-GuĂ©rin) vaccine effectively controls tuberculosis.
  • On an average, our body has about 5 liters of blood continuously flowing through the circulatory system.
  • The body's circulatory system is of three types: pulmonary circulation ( to/from the lungs), coronary circulation (to/fromthe heart), and systemic circulation (to/ from the rest of the organs).
  • The plants have two main tissues involved in transportation they are xylem and phloem vessels.
  • Blood is filtered in the kidneys to remove urea, water and salts to form urine.
  • The kidney is a very complex organ and is made up of a large number of units called nephrons.
  • Gums, resins, rubber and latex are exuded from various parts of the plant body.

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