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Differing Strands within the Movement

With the beginning of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement in January 1921, many social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. All of them responded to the call of Swaraj, but the term meant different things to different people.

                                            The Movement in the Towns

The Movement in the Towns

  • The middle-class mainly participated in the movement in the cities.

  • Thousands left government jobs.

  • The elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.

  •  There was a dramatic effect on the economic front of non-cooperation.
  • Foreign goods were boycotted, and foreign cloth was burnt.

  • Traders stopped trading with foreign goods.

  • With this boycott, the production and consumption of cloth went up in India.

But it was not possible to boycott the British goods for a long time, since Khadi cloth, which was used by the Indians was more expensive than mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. The same way boycotting the British institutions was also not possible because there were not many Indian schools set up to replace the British schools.

For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up. Though Indian schools started, they were taking a long time to improve, so the government employees started turning back to the British institutions.

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