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Early Political Movements and the Rise of Indian National Congress

A number of political organisations came into existence, which resulted in the inculcation of religious reform and social pride which was fundamental to the rise of a public movement for complete independence. The works of men like Swami Vivekananda, Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Sri Aurobindo, Subramanya Bharathy, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Rabindranath Tagore and Dadabhai Naoroji spread the passion for rejuvenation and freedom.


           Swami Vivekananda            Ramakrishna Paramhansa


           Sri Aurobindo                  Subramanya Bharathy


Bankim Chandra Chatterjee         Dadabhai Naoroji        


Sir Syed Ahmed Khan               Rabindranath Tagore


Lokmanya Tilak

Lokmanya Tilak, though with non-moderate views, was very popular amongst the masses. He gave the concept of "Swaraj" to the Indian people while standing trial. His popular sentence "Swaraj is my Birthright, and I shall have it" became the source of inspiration for Indians. The flames of the spirit of freedom were ignited by learned men like them, who gave reason for common Indians to feel proud of themselves, demand political and social freedom and seek happiness. They were the teachers who sparked the passion of learning and achievement, for thousands of Indians



Indian National congress

  • Inspired by a suggestion made by A.O. Hume, a retired British civil servant, seventy-three Indian delegates met in Bombay in 1885 and founded the Indian National Congress.

  • They were mostly members of the upwardly mobile and successful western-educated provincial elites, engaged in professions such as law, teaching, and journalism.

  • They had acquired political experience from regional competition in the professions and by securing nomination to various positions in legislative councils, universities, and special commissions.

It should be noted that Dadabhai Naoroji had formed the Indian National Association a few years before the Congress. The INA merged into the Congress Party to form a bigger national front.

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