# Introduction

A gambler's dispute in 1654 led to the creation of a mathematical theory of probability by two famous French mathematicians, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat. A French nobleman with an interest in gaming and gambling questions, called Pascal's attention to the popular dice game. This problem led to an exchange of letters between Pascal and Fermat in which the fundamental principles of probability theory were formulated for the first time.Â

Pierre de Fermat (1601 -1665) |
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) |

**Probability in Our Lives**

A basic understanding of probability makes it possible to understand everything from batting averages to the weather report or chances for a house in a street of being struck by lightning! Probability is an important topic in mathematics because the probability of certain events happening - or not happening - can be important to us in the daily life.

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Here's the basic idea. An average team, at any point in a game, has a certain likelihood of winning the game. For instance, if you're leading by hundred runs in the first inning, your chances of winning the game are much greater than if you're leading by three runs in the last over of the first innings. With each change in the score, inning, number of outs, or even pitch, there is a change in the average team's probability of winning the game.