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The Coming Up of the Factory

The earliest factories in England came up during the 1730s and grew in number during the late eighteenth century.
Cotton factories were the first factories to be set up and its production boomed in the late nineteenth century.

The cotton Industry :-

  • New machinery was invented for carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling
  • These enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more.
  • Stronger threads were produced due to the modern machinery.
  • The Cotton mill was created by Richard Arkwright
  • Weaving of cloth which was done in the cottages by the villagers was now mass produced in these modern cotton mills
  • All the activities required for weaving cloth from raw cotton was now done under one roof- the cotton mill.
  • This made supervision easier and production faster and quality finer.
  • Soon factories became very popular.

In 1760 Britain imported 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton to feed its cotton industry. By 1787

The import increased to 22 million pounds.

                                 Richard Arkwright who created the Cotton Mill

Model of Richard Arkwright's ‘water-frame’ device to produce yarn

The water-frame produced fine yarn. The yarn was strong enough to be used as warp thread. With this handloom weavers could produce a wide range of cotton cloth that was lightweight and cheap. The device was powered by water instead of by hand. Arkwright built the first water powered spinning factory in Cromford, Derbyshire in 1771.

Cotton Industry in the Late 1700's

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