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  • Indo-China comprises of the territories of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.
  • In the mid-nineteenth century, Vietnam became a colony of France.
  • The nationalists were organised into a political party, the Vietminh, which had been created in 1941
  • After the fall of Japan in 1945, the Vietminh declared Vietnam an independent nation
  • The French, did very little to industrialise the economy
  • French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnamese.
  • The French feared that once educated, the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination.
  • The elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture
  • In 1907, Tonkin Free School was started to provide a western style education.
  • Bubonic plague started to spread in the modern part of Hanoi in 1903
  • The French sought to reshape social and cultural life of the Vietnamese.
  • The Scholars Revolt in 1868 was an early movement against French control and the spread of Christianity.
  • Huynh Phu So started the Hoa Hao movement in 1939
  • Confucian scholar-activists led resistance to French domination in the late nineteenth century
  • Japan occupied Vietnam in 1940.
  • The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed with Ho Chi Minh as the Chairman.
  • The earlier regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Diem.
  • The entry of US into the war proved to be fatal for both
  • The Ho Chi Minh trail symbolises how the Vietnamese used their limited resources to great advantage.
  • The women played a mighty role in the struggle of the nation.
  • The French began to struggle with the Vietminh to reestablish control over the country
  • In 1949, they established a nominally independent national government under the leadership of the former emperor, Bao Dai.
  • In 1953, Vietminh forces engaged the French in a major battle
  • The French were surrounded and the First Indochina War came come to an end. 

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