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Urbanization is the shift of human population from rural areas to cities, and the resulting growth of cities or urban areas.

In this chapter we are going to see how the modern city emerges, and what happens within the city.

The city has two sides to it – huge buildings, monuments, bridges, modern means of transportation, palatial houses, high-rise buildings, factories, shops and educational institutions. Now let us look at the other side of a city - cheats and thieves, grinding poverty, poor quality of life for many, filth and pollution and disease.

The city seems to offer a series of contrasting images and experiences – wealth and poverty, splendour and dirt, opportunities and disappointments. Yet people crave to live in cities. Urbanisation has a long history; the modern city has developed only over the last 200 years.

Three historical factors have shaped modern cities.

  • The rise of industrial capitalism
  • The establishment of colonial rule over large parts of the world
  • The development of democratic ideals

Urbanization - The Positive


Urbanization - The Negative

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