Coupon Accepted Successfully!



Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century

The population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century because people from rural areas migrated to London in search of employment in the factories which were being set up in London.

As offices increased in the metropolis people came to London seek jobs in offices. An increase in population called for an increase in labour in all sectors. Soon the city was full of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled and semi- skilled artisans, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers, and beggars.


What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this change.

Women came to London, with their families, from far off places. These migrant women initially found employment in factories.

As the Industrial revolution started they were without employment. Factories now had machines which could do the work faster and easier. So women were without employment. So, they started working as house –maids, for well to-do families in London, cooking, washing and caring for the children in the houses they worked in.

They also found employment in lodges. Things changed for the women once again during the World War, which began in the early 20th century. Men went to fight in the war and women found employment in factories. Factories were busy manufacturing goods to meet the war-time needs.


A leader of a political party.


a) As many people came to the cities they needed place to stay. The private landlords built cheap houses and rented it to the migrant city dwellers. They charged exorbitant rents from these migrants. Thus the private landlords benefited from the expanding urban population.

b) Crime flourished as London developed and it soon became a great concern for a Police Superintendent in charge of law and order. He had to take measures to contain criminal activitiesTo contain these criminal activities the authorities imposed high penalties for crime and offered work to those who were considered the ‘deserving poor’.

c) The vast population in a city gave political leaders an opportunity to amass massive support for their political Party. The Dock workers strike in London in the year 1889 was a classic example were the common people were drawn into politics by political leaders.


c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century.


a) The well –off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century because they were afraid of health problems that resulted from the congested, unhygienic tenements that were provided for the poor. They were also concerned about the beauty of London which was affected by these tenements. They also feared the spread of social disorder.

b) Many of the people who worked in the film industry were migrants from near by regions. Actors, writers, musicians came from places like Lahore and Calcutta. As they were migrants they had faced hardship in Bombay, so their films reflected their experiences.

c) Bombay being a sea port, trade flourished there. A trade increased many people were attracted to the city to make money. Traders, merchants and industrialists flooded Bombay. Cotton mills increased in Bombay and this brought in workers from other regions. Bombay also dominated the maritime trade of India.
Railways expanded in Bombay, and this encouraged large scale migration into the city.


What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people.

As the population increased the need for leisure increased. As the need for recreation increased among the working class, cultural events, such as the opera, the theatre and classical music performances increased.

Working classes also met in pubs to have a drink and exchange news and to organise for political action.

Many new types of large-scale entertainment for the common people came into existence.

In the nineteenth century Libraries, art galleries and museums were built.

Museums provided people with a sense of history and pride in the achievements of the British.

Music halls and cinemas became popular among the lower classes. British industrial workers spent their holidays by the sea.


Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the Underground railway. Why was the development of the Underground criticised?

London became the world's largest city from about 1831 to 1925. Rising traffic on the city roads led to the creation of the world's first metro system—the London Underground—in 1863, driving further expansion and urbanisation. Because of this rapid growth, London became one of the first cities in human history to reach a population of one million, and was the first ever to surpass five million.

The London underground railway partially solved the housing crisis by carrying large masses of people to and from the city. The very first section of the Underground in the world opened on 10 January 1863 between Paddington and Farrington Street in London. Initially 10,000 passengers used this railway system. In 1880 the expanded train service carried 40 million passengers a year.

The underground system was first criticized by the people
In the beginning people were afraid to travel by this underground railway system. They thought they would suffocate from lack of air. Many objected to the Underground railway system as 900 houses had to be destroyed to build 2 miles of the railway.

Eventually all the fears were appeased and the underground became very popular.

By the twentieth century, most large metropolises had a well developed metro –railway system.

Benefits of this mass transport system
Population in the city became more dispersed. Better-planned suburbs and a good railway network enabled large numbers to live outside central London and travel to work. These new conveniences wore down social distinctions.


Explain what is meant by the Haussmanisation of Paris. To what extent would you support or oppose this form of development? Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper, to either support or oppose this, giving reasons for your view.

Haussmanisation of Paris means modernisation of a city. Straight, broad avenues and open spaces were planned. Full-grown trees transplanted along the avenues. Policemen were employed and night patrols were introduced. Bus shelters and tap water were introduced.


The Editor


I would like to express my views on the modernisation of a city.

I fully support the modernisation of a city as it gives the city a beautiful appearance.

It gives the citizens a better standard of living. Fresh air and a clean atmosphere are provided by the trees that line the avenues.

Night patrols reduce crime rates and people can live in safety.

A well planned modern city is a treat to the eye.

A beautiful city is sure to attract tourists and this will ensure the development of the tourism industry.

Open spaces and parks reduce pollution, which is very essential for our health. Clean modern cities will enhance our reputation on the international field.

I would like to add, that whatever the efforts the government may make to create a modern beautiful city, it is also the duty of the citizen to maintain it and help retain its beauty.

Thanking you,



b) private life.


The government laws solved the problems of the population to a large extent, but sometimes some legislations failed.

Many legislations are passed by governments keeping in mind the welfare of the citizens.

a) Successful legislatures

i) The legislation to reclaim land from the sea was very successful in Bombay. As Bombay was expanding commercially more space was required. The reclamation undertaken by the government provided with more space to expand the city and provide living space for its citizens. The reclamation helped public life and trade and commercial activities in Bombay. 

ii) The Singapore government passed a legislature restricting people from migrating into the city. As the city was over populated the government felt that more people would lead to crisis. The government also provided with housing for the existing citizens and ensured their safety and well being.

b) Unsuccessful legislature

i) The rent Control act of 1918 was passed in the Bombay Presidency. It was passed to keep the rent under control as the private landlords charged high rents from the poor migrants and provided them with low quality housing. This Act was not successful as it created a housing crisis and houses were not available for the migrants and they were put to a lot of hardship.

ii) The underground railway system in London was not very successful initially. Many objected to the Underground railway system as 900 houses had to be destroyed to build 2 miles of the railway. Though the citizens were put to hardship these eventually benefited from this railway system.

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name