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  • Even though drastic changes take place in the metabolism, the basic constituents in both the organisms remain the same.
  • The most common necessary element is water. Some of the other organic substances are carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and other elements.
  • Mineral salts are essential components of the cell.
  • Ribose is a pentose sugar containing five carbon atoms.
  • Chemically, polysaccharides are inactive and do not ionise.
  • Fats are storage products in plants as well as in animals.
  • Fur, feathers, fruits, leaves, human skin and insect exoskeleton are naturally waterproofed with a coating of wax.
  • Proteins are responsible for most of the fundamental features of structure and function of living organisms and are also the cause of the tremendous diversity of living systems.
  • Proteins control and regulate various biological activities such as growth, differentiation, reproduction and metabolism, in the form of hormones.
  • Nucleic acids regulate metabolism, growth, reproduction, and eventual destiny of the cell.
  • The helical structure for DNA was proposed by James Watson and Francis Crick, hence it is known as the Watson-Crick model of DNA double helix.
  • Each enzyme shows its highest activity at a specific pH.
  • Cyanide kills an animal by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase, a mitochondrial enzyme essential for cellular respiration.
  • Fat - soluble vitamins are soluble in fats, e.g. vitamin A, D, E and K.
  • Water - soluble vitamins which include the B-complex group of vitamins, and vitamin C.

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