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Important points to remember
  • Electrovalent bonding is essentially the electrostatic force of attraction between the oppositely charged ions.
  • Covalent bonding is the mutual sharing of electrons leading to non electrostatic binding.
  • Lewis structures gives the electronic representations of molecules.
  • Formal charge predicts the effectiveness of the Lewis structures.
  • Molecules possessing incomplete octet, odd electrons, expanded octet deviates from the octet rule.
  • Ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and other periodic properties helps in calculating lattice enthalpy which is the energy released when a crystal lattice is formed .More the value of this more stable is the molecule.
  • Important parameters associated with the chemical bonds like: bond order, bond length, bond enthalpy, bond angle and bond polarity have significant effect on the properties of the compounds.
  • VSEPR model deals with the determination of geometry and shapes of molecules as a consequence of electronic repulsions (due to lone pair and bond pair). It is found that repulsion of LP - LP > BP - LP > BP- BP
  • VB theory deals with the overlapping of orbitals leading to the formation of a σ bond (linear overlapping) and a π bond (lateral or sideways overlapping)
  • Representation of a single molecule by different structures viz., the canonical forms taken together constitute the resonance hybrid which represents the molecule or ion.
  • The phenomenon of mixing up of atomic of orbitals different energies to form hybrid orbitals of of same energy is called hybridization. This not only explain the phenomenon of overlapping of orbitals but also deals with multiple bond formation.
  • Molecular orbitals are formed by the combination of atomic orbitals. Orbitals lower energy called bonding molecular orbitals and orbitals of higher energy called antibonding orbitals are formed . Bond order and the stability of the molecule can understood well.
  • A chemical bond formed between highly electronegativity atoms like N, F, O and hydrogen which is least electronegative called hydrogen bonding exists as intermolecular hydrogen bonding (H2O, HF) and intramolecular hydrogen bonding (o- nitro phenol)

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