Points to ponder
- Chemical equilibrium is dynamic in nature since the rate of forward and reverse reactions are equal.
- Law of mass action states that at constant temperature rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the molar concentration of the reacting substances.
- Equilibrium constant (Kc) is defined as the ratio of the product of concentration of the products to that of reactants. More the value of this more faster is the reaction.
- Equilibrium constant for the reverse reaction is the reciprocal of that of the forward reaction.
- Reaction quotient (Qc) is defined as the ratio of product of initial concentration of the products to that of reactants. If Q > Kc the reaction is reverse where as the reaction is forward if Q < Kc.
- According to le-Chatlieur's principle, if a system at equilibrium is subjected to any constraints the system will act in such a way to nullify its effect . It plays an important role in the industrial processes.
- Electrolyte that gets completely ionized in solution is called a strong electrolyte and that which undergoes incomplete ionization is called a weak electrolyte.
- According to Arhenius theory substances furnishing H+ ions in solution are acids, those furnishing OH- are called bases.
- Lewis theory defines acids as electron pair acceptors and bases as electron donors.
- All proton donors are acids and proton acceptors bases according to Lowry bronsted concept of acids and bases.
- The suppression of dissociation of weak electrolytes by adding their own ions is called common ion effect.
- Solutions which resist any change in the pH value are called buffer solutions
- Solubility product is the product of concentration of an anion and the cation in solution. This helps in predicting whether a particular salt will get precipitated or not.