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  • The nitrogen containing substances, ions, water and carbon dioxide that accumulate in the body have to be eliminated.
  • Ammonia, urea and uric acid are the major nitrogenous wastes excreted.
  • The human excretory system consists of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder and a urethra.
  • Each kidney has over a million tubular structures called nephrons.
  • It has two portions glomerulus and renal tubule. Glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries formed from different arterioles. The Bowman's capsule encloses the glomerulus to form Malphigian or renal corpuscle.
  • Mechanism of nephron takes place through filtration, reabsorption and secretion.
  • Glomerulus filters about 1500 ml of blood per minute to form 125ml of filtrate in Bowman's capsule.
  • JGA specialized portion of the nephron, plays a significant role in the regulation of GFR.
  • Proximal convoluted tubule is the major site of reabsorption and selective secretion.
  • Distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct allow extensive reabsorption of water and electrolytes that helps in osmoregulation.
  • Urine is stored in urinary bladder till a voluntary signal from central nervous system carries out its release through urethra.
  • Apart from kidneys, other excretory organs are skin, liver and lungs.

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