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  • Large diversity is shown in all higher plants based on external characters - Morphology
  • Parts of a plant shows the position of vegetative and reproductive structure
  • Root gets modified for abundant storage of food materials in both tap-root and fibrous-root systems
  • Stem gets modified to form aerial, sub-aerial and underground stem modifications
  • Leaf gets modified based on its structural aspects of phyllotaxy, venation, type of leaf (simple and compound leaf)
  • Inflorescence: group of flowers having a common stalk of peduncle and is categorised as racemose or cymose
  • Flower: modified shoot consists of floral parts like calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium
  • The floral parts show many variations like symmetry, arrangement of calyx and corolla, based on the arrangement of carpels and based on the cohesion and adhesion of stamens
  • Fruit: fertilized ovary: classified into fleshy, dry dehiscent and dry indehiscent fruits
  • Seed: formed from ovule; explains the two types of cotyledons (monocot and dicot)
  • Some of the common families are summarized with technical terms based on their identification and classification
  • The floral formula and floral diagrams help us know the description of floral parts.

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