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  • Hybridisation is the concept of mixing up of atomic orbitals of different energies to form hybrid orbitals of equivalent energies.
  • Linear overlapping of orbitals leads to the formation of a σ bond and lateral or sideways overlapping of orbitals leads to the formation of a π bond.
  • The groups that are responsible for the modification of physical and chemical properties of a compound are called functional groups.
  • IUPAC (International Union Of Pure and Applied Chemistry) facilitates naming organic compounds with various structures.
  • Organic reaction mechanisms can be very well explained by bond cleavage viz., homolytic and heterolytic cleavage.
  • Carbon with positive charge is a carbonium ion or a carbocation and carbon with -ve charge is a carbanion.
    Species with +ve charge are electrophiles and that with -ve charge are nucleophiles.
  • Polarisation of covalent bonds is explained by inductive, resoanance, electromeric and hyperconjugation effects.
    Organic compounds can be purified by different techniques viz., sublimation, crystallization, distillation depending upon the nature of the substances.
  • Chromatography is a modern technique which purifies substances based on their rates of adsorption. Different types are adsorption, paper and thin layer chromatography
  • Elements such as C, H, X (F, Cl, Br, I), S can be detected by Lassaigne's test. This is known as qualitative analysis.
  • The detected elements can be estimated by quantitative analysis.

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