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  • Water potential is a measure of the ability of water molecules to move from one region to another.
  • The formula to calculate water potential is as follows: ψw = ψs + ψp+ ψg
  • Distilled water in an open beaker has a water potential of 0 (zero).
  • Fine strands of cytoplasm, called plasmodesmata, extend through pores in the cell wall connecting the cytoplasm of each cell with that of its neighbours.
  • Osmosis is the movement of water molecules( solvent) from an area of its high concentration to an area of its low concentration through a semi- permeable membrane.
  • The tendency on the part of molecules, atoms or ions of gases, liquids and solids to get evenly distributed throughout the available space, on account of their kinetic motion is called diffusion.
  • Salting of pickles, meat, fish, etc. and addition of sugar to jams, jellies, cut fruits, etc., prevent their decay by microbes, as the latter get killed due to plasmolysis or due to high concentration of salt or sugar.
  • Imbibition plays a role in the ascent of sap.
  • Transpiration is affected by the environmental factors, that is, humidity, temperature and wind speed.
  • Stomata are functional units of the epidermis serving for the exchange of gases between the intercellular spaces of a plant and its surrounding and for transpiration.
  • The stomata of CAM-plants, like Crassulaceans, are open during the night. They depend on the accumulation of carbon dioxide during the night.

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