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Question 1

What is agriculture?

Solution :
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinals and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization.
Question 2
Name the factors influencing agriculture?
Solution :
Favourable topography of soil and climate are factors that influence agriculture.
Question 3

What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?

Solution :
In shifting cultivation a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot. In the ideal case, shifting cultivation is a cycle where farmers come back to the original place after a couple of years.
Shifting cultivation systems are primitive, backward, wasteful, unproductive, exploitative and the cause of widespread environmental degradation. Shifting cultivators are blamed for the destruction of much of the world’s tropical forests, land degradation, atmospheric pollution and global climatic change.
Question 4

What is plantation agriculture?
Solution :
Plantation agriculture is a form of commercial farming where crops are grown for profit. Large land areas are needed for this type of agriculture. Countries that have plantation agriculture usually experience high annual temperatures and receive high annual rainfall. Plantations are mainly found in countries that have a tropical climate.
Question 5

Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.

Solution :
Fibre crops are crops which are grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper, cloth, or rope. Cotton and jute are Fibre crops.
Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth. It grows best on black and alluvial soils.
Jute was also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’. It grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate. This crop is grown in the tropical areas.

Question 6

Give reasons.
In India agriculture is a primary activity.

Solution :
India is a developing nation with a large population where agriculture is mainly a primary activity and intensive agriculture is practised where crops are grown on small holdings mostly for subsistence. Two-thirds of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture.
Question 7

Give reasons.
Different crops are grown in different regions.

Solution :
Favourable topography of soil and climate are vital for agricultural activity, so different crops are grown in different regions according to the soil and climate of the region. Crops cultivated in a particular region also depend on the demand of the produce, labour and level of technology.
Question 8

Distinguish between the followings.
Primary activities and tertiary activities.

Solution :
Primary activities are connected with extraction and production of natural resources, while tertiary activities are activities that provide support to primary activities.
Agriculture, fishing, poultry farming and mining are examples of primary activities and
Transport, trade, banking, insurance and advertising are examples of tertiary activities.

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