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Example : It is An exhaustible natural resource. And is a fossil fuel.


Coal obtained after mining

Coal used in steam engine as fuel

Coal used as fuel in thermal power stations to generate electricity

Coal used as fuel in industries



Formation of Coal 

Coal is formed by the process called carbonization About 300 million years ago the earth had dense forests in low lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes, like flooding, these forests got buried under the soil. As more soil deposited Over them, they were compressed. The temperature also rose as they sank deeper and deeper. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead plants got slowly converted to coal. The slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization.



Coke is formed by the destructive distillation of coal. Coal is powdered and taken in a hard glass test tube, heated strongly in the absence of air. The arrangement carrying out the destructive distillation is shown below.




Coke is the residue left after the destructive distillation of Coal. It is a tough, porous and black substance. It is almost pure form of carbon. Coke is used in the manufacture of steel and in the extraction of many metals.

Coal Tar 

It is the thick black colored liquid collected by condensing the vapours obtained by the destructive distillation of coal. It has unpleasant smell. It is a mixture of about 200 substances. Products obtained from coal tar are used as starting materials for manufacturing various substances used in everyday life and in industry, like synthetic dyes, drugs, explosives, perfumes, plastics, paints, photographic materials, roofing materials, etc.

Coal Gas : 

The uncondensed vapours obtained by the destructive distillation of coal is called coal gas. It used as a fuel in many industries. Coal was first used for street lighting in the year 1810 at London and in New York around 1820.

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