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Question 1

What is ploughing? What are the implement used in ploughing?





  • The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing.
  • This is done by plough.
  • The ploughed field may contain big pieces of soil called crumbs.
  • To prevent the loose soil from being eroded by wind or water, it is leveled using a wooden or an iron leveler.
  • This also ensures uniform irrigation.
  • Next manure or fertilizer is added to the soil to increase its fertility before the seeds are sown.
  • Plough is a tool used for ploughing in olden days.
  • This is made up of wood and it is drawn by a pair of bull.
  • It contains of a triangular iron strip called as the ploughshare.
  • The main part is a long rod of wood called as the ploughshaft.
  • The other end is attached to the beam which is attached to the bull.
  • Hoe helps in removing the weeds this loosens the soil.
  • It is a long rod which is made up of wood or iron.
  • A strong bent plate made of iron is present at one end.
  • This is pulled by animals.
  • Cultivation is done by tractors now days.
  • This save time and labor.

Question 2

What is sowing? What are tool involved in sowing?


Two methods involved in sowing seeds

  • Seeds used for sowing should be of good quality, healthy and free from infections.
  • They must be planted at the correct depth in the soil.
  • The soil should have enough water for the seeds to germinate as they do not germinate in dry soil. So the right quantity of water has to be ensured.
  • The seeds should be planted at the right distance from each other.
  • If they are planted too close they will not get enough sunlight, water and nutrients.
  • Traditional tool
    • The traditional tool in sowing seeds is shaped like a funnel
    • The seeds pass through the funnel
    • The funnel end pierces into the soil
  • Seed drill
    • In recent days seed drills are present which sows the seeds using tractors
    • Seed drill sows the seeds uniformly at proper distance and depth
    • It ensures seeds are properly covered by the soil

Question 3

What are the advantages of using manure.

Uses of manure
  • Improve soil retention
  • Water retaining capacity
  • It makes the soil porous ,due to which exchange of gases takes place
  • It increases the number of microbes
  • It replenish the soils with all manures
  • Question 4

    Write a note on crop rotation.

    Crop rotation
  • Crop rotation is done by alternate growing of different crop in the same soil
  • Framers in India used to grow wheat one season and legumes another season
  • This helped in the replenishment of the soil using nitrogen
  • Rhizobium bacteria are present
  • Question 5

    Write a note on harvesting?


    Harvesting is the cutting and gathering of the mature crop

  • Separation of the grains from chaff is called as threshing
  • Grains are harvested manually using a sickle,
  • By using mechanical harvesters or combines.
  • Combines are machines that also do the threshing (beating out the grain from the chaff).
  • Mechanical Harvester

    Threshing can also be done by a machine called a thresher. In manual harvesting, threshing is done by making oxen or buffaloes trample over the cut crop.

    Question 6

    What is winnowing ?


    The separation of grains is from the chaff and hay. This can be done with the help of the wind and is called winnowing.

    Question 7

    Write a note on storage?


  • The grains have to be dried in the sun and then packed in bags or bins before storing in granaries and silos
  • This helps to reduce to some extent the damage caused by rodents.
  • If the monsoon fails during a particular year then it becomes essential to stock the grain.
  • This is known as buffer stock.

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