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Distribution of Population

  • Population is a term that refers to the total human inhabitants of a specified area, such as a city, country, or continent, at a given time.
  • Population study is known as demography.
  • Demography deals with the size, composition, and distribution of populations
  • Population changes over time through births, deaths, and migration
  • Population studies are essential for the government to plan areas such as health, education, housing, social security, employment, and environmental preservation.

Distribution of Population is the way in which people are spread across the earth’s surface.

Distribution of population - 1994

(Density - number of people per Square km)

  • As seen in the map above world population is not equally distributed.
  • Some areas are very crowded while some areas are sparsely populated.
  • 90% of the world’s population live in just 10% of the earth’s surface. 


  • Physical features of an area are one of the reasons for a region being sparsely populated or otherwise.
  • High latitude areas, tropical deserts, high mountains and areas of equatorial forests are sparsely populated.
  • Areas north of the Equator are more populated than to the areas south of the Equator.
  • Almost three-quarters of the world’s people live in two continents; Asia and Africa.
  • Sixty per cent of the world’s people stay in just 10 countries.

Now let us see the percentage of world population in these 10 countries


China: 20% of world population
India: 17%
United States: 4.6%
Indonesia: 3.5%
Brazil: 2.8%
Pakistan: 2.5%
Bangladesh: 2.3%
Russia: 2.2%
Nigeria: 2.1%
Japan: 2.0%

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