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Question 1

Why are people considered a resource?

Nature’s bounty becomes significant only when people find it useful. It is people with their demands and abilities that turn them into ‘resources’. Hence, human resource is the ultimate resource.
Question 2

What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?

The way in which people are distributed across the earth is known as the pattern of population distribution. Actually more than 90% of the world’s population lives in about 10% of the land surface. Some areas are over-crowded and some are sparsely populated. Following are the various factors responsible for this extremely uneven distribution of population in the world:
(a) Geographical factors – Favourable topography, availability of mineral and fresh water resources, favourable climate and soil fertility are some of the reasons affecting population distribution e.g., Indo Gangetic Plains, Diamond Mines of South Africa etc are densely populated.
(b) Social and Cultural factors – Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more populated. Places of religious and cultural significance also attract people e.g., Varanasi, Jerusalem etc.
(c) Economic factors – Places having more industries, transportation and communication facilities provide better employment opportunities. People are attracted to these places because of the above reasons e.g., Mumbai, Osaka etc.
Question 3

The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?

The main reason for the growth of world population is that with better food supplies and medicine, deaths were reducing, while the number of births still remained fairly high.
Question 4

Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.

The population change refers to change in the number of people during a specific time. Natural growth rate and Migration are the 2 main reasons for population change.
Natural growth rate is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country. Birth Rate is the number of live births per 1,000 people and Death Rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people.

Migration is another way by which there is a population change. Migration is the movement of people in and out of an area. It can also be described as a person leaving his own home to go to a new place or residence for different reasons.
  • Emigration, leaving one's native country to live in another.
  • Urbanization, the moving of people from rural areas into cities.
  • Immigration, arriving to live in a new country.

… are the 3 major types of migration that result in population change.
Question 5

What is meant by population composition?

Population composition refers to the structure of the population in a state or country.
Population Composition helps us to know the percentage of individual characteristic such as …………………………….
  • Gender
  • Age group
  • Literary level
  • Health
  • Occupation
  • Income  
Question 6

What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?

Population Composition of age and sex is usually represented by a population pyramid.
A population pyramid shows:-

• The total population divided into various age groups.

• The percentage of the total population, subdivided into males and females, in each of those groups.

Population pyramid reflects the level of births and deaths. It also reveals the number of dependents in a country and people in the working age bracket.

The statistics from a population pyramid help a government plan its programmes and budget, for the development of the nation.
Question 7

Pick up the correct answer.
(i) Which does the term population distribution refer to?
(a) How population in a specified area changes over time.
(b) The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.
(c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.

(ii) Which are three main factors that cause population change?
(a) Births, deaths and marriage
(b) Births, deaths and migration.
(c) Births, deaths and life expectancy

(iii) In 1999, the world population reached
(a) 1 billion
(b) 3 billion
(c) 6 billion.

(iv) What is a population pyramid?
(a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
(b) When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.
(c) Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.

i. (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.

ii. (b) Births, deaths and migration.

iii. (c) 6 billion.

iv. (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
Question 8

Complete the sentences below using some of the following words.
sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely

When people are attracted to an area it becomes densely populated.
Factors that influence this include favourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.

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