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Major Industries


Iron and Steel Industry
Like other industries iron and steel industry too includes various inputs, processes and outputs. This is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.


i. Inputs

  • Iron Ore
  • Coal
  • Limestone
  • Labour
  • Capital
  • Infrastructural Facilities

ii. The Process

Converting iron ore into steel involves many stages.

Stage I
Iron Ore, coal and lime stone are put in a blast furnace and melted to extract the metal. This process is called smelting.

A Blast Furnace


Stage II
The iron that is extracted from the furnace is refined. This extract is called steel.
Stage III

The steel is then cast as billets or slabs. These billets and slabs are used by other Industries as raw material.

iii. The output

Steel billets and slabs are the output.

Steel Billets

Steel Slabs



Steel - its properties

  • Steel is called the backbone of modern industry.
  • Steel is tough and it can easily be shaped, cut, or made into wire.
  • Special alloys of steel can be made by adding small amounts of other metals such as aluminium, nickel, and copper.
  • Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust.

Steel - its uses
  • Tools
  • Machinery
  • Ships, trains, trucks, and autos
  • Safety pins and needles
  • Drilling Machinery used in oil wells, mining are made of steel
  • Oil pipelines
  • Farm machines
  • Steel framework for large buildings
The History of the location of iron and steel industries in the world
  • Before 1800 A.D. iron and steel industry was located where raw materials, power supply and running water were available.
  • Later these industries were located near coal fields and close to canals and railways to facilitate transportation.
  • After 1950, iron and steel industry began to be located on large areas of flat land near sea ports as large quantities of iron ore was needed from overseas.
The Indian Iron and Steel Industries

Iron and steel industries in India are located across four states- West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. Raw materials, cheap labour, transport and market was available in these states. Other important iron and steel industries are located in Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar in Karnataka, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Salem in Tamil Nadu. India’s steel production has increased 5 decades.

Tata Iron and Steel Company, Jamshedpur


Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited also known as TISCO is a privately owned Company


TISCO was started in 1907 at Sakchi, near the confluence of the rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai in Jharkhand. Sakchi was renamed Jamshedpur in 1919 after Jamsetji Tata.

Statue of Jamsetji Tata, Founder, Tata Steel


TISCO - Location
  • Jamshedpur is 32 km away from Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line.
  • It is close to the iron ore, coal and manganese deposits. TISCO gets coal from Jharia coalfields, and iron ore, limestone, dolomite and manganese from Orissa and Chhattisgarh.
  • Jamshedpur is close to Kolkata, which provides a large market.
  • The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers provide sufficient water supply to the industry. Government initiatives provided adequate capital for its development.

Workers at Tata Steel

  • Tata Steel is the world's 6th largest steel company with an annual crude steel capacity of 28 million tonnes.
  • Tata Steel is Asia's first integrated steel plant and India's largest integrated private sector steel company.
  • It is also the world's second most geographically diversified steel producer, with operations in 24 countries and commercial presence in over 50 countries

The development of the iron and steel industry opened the doors to rapid industrial development in India, as almost all sectors of the Indian industry depend heavily on the iron and steel industry for their basic infrastructure.


The Indian iron and steel industry consists of large integrated steel plants as well as mini steel mills. It also includes secondary producers like rolling mills and ancillary industries.


Pittsburgh – the Steel City of USA


The Steel City

  • The Steel City is orientated around three rivers, the Ohio, the Monongahela and Allegheny.
  • Pittsburgh is an important steel city of the United States of America. The steel industry at Pittsburgh is strategically located.
  • Raw material such as coal is available nearby
  • Between the coal mines and Pittsburgh is one of the world’s best routes for shipping ore cheaply – the famous Great Lakes Waterway.
The Great lake Waterway

  • Trains carry the ore from the Great Lakes to the Pittsburgh area.
  • The Ohio, the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers provide adequate water supply.
  • Finished steel is transported to the market by both land and water routes.
  • The Pittsburgh area has many factories other than steel mills. These use steel as their raw material to make many different products such as railroad equipment, heavy machinery and rails.

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