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Distribution of Natural Vegetation

The growth of vegetation depends on two major factors:-
  • Temperature.
  • Moisture.
  • Natural vegetation can be classified into …

  • Forests.
  • Grasslands.
  • Scrubs.
  • Tundra.
  • Now let us look at these regions one by one.



  • Forests are found in areas where there is heavy rain fall.
  • In regions where the rain fall is very heavy the tress are lush green and dense.
  • In regions where the rainfall is scanty the forests have stunted trees.


    In the regions of moderate rainfall short stunted trees and grasses grow forming the grasslands of the world.



  • In regions of low rainfall thorny shrubs and scrubs grow.
  • In this region the plants have deep roots in order to draw water from deep in the ground.
  • The plants have thorny, waxy surfaces to reduce loss of moisture by transpiration.


  • Tundra vegetation is found in the Polar Regions.
  • They comprise of mosses and lichens.
  • Now let us look at the forests more deeply and see how they are classified.


    • Evergreen forests do not shed their leaves simultaneously in any season of the year.

    • Deciduous forests shed their leaves in a particular season to conserve loss of moisture through transpiration.

    Today, with the constant increase in population all over the world large areas of forests are being cut down to grow more crops and provide dwelling area for people.

    But forests are an essential natural resource that we have to preserve at all cost.


    Conservation of Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

    Forests are our wealth. Plants give shelter to the animals and together they maintain the ecosystem.

    Let us look at the causes that destroy our natural vegetation and wildlife. They can be man-made destruction or natural destruction


  • Climate Change.
  • Deforestation.
  • Soil Erosion.
  • Construction Activities.
  • Agricultural Expansion.
  • Forest Fires.
  • Tsunamis.
  • Landslides.
  • Earth Quakes.
  • Floods.

    Poaching is a major cause for concern as many species of animals and birds are extinct now due to poaching.

    Wild animals are killed for various reasons. They are killed for their…

  • Skin - tigers; leopards; deer.
  • Nails - tigers.
  • Horns - elephants; rhinoceros.
  • Feathers - peacocks.

    People have to be educated on the vital role natural resources play in our lives and steps should be taken to conserve them

    Efforts are being made to preserve our biosphere through …
  • Biosphere Reserves.
  • National Parks.
  • Project Tiger.
  • Vanamahotsava.
  • Cites.
  • Biosphere Reserves

    Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO. These reserves are rich in biodiversity and cultural heritage and encompass unique ecosystems. The goal is conservation of landscapes and their immense biological diversity.


    There are twelve Biosphere Reserves in India. They aim to protect ecosystems and also serve as laboratories for evolving alternative models of development. Research and development projects are also supported.

    A View of Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve

    National Parks
    There are 88 National Parks and 490 Wildlife Sanctuaries in the country covering an area of 1.53 lakh sq. kms. These Parks are protected areas in mountains, deserts and coastal regions supporting large population of endangered species like snow leopard, red panda, rhino, sangai deer, pharys’ leaf monkey, musk deer, hangul, great Indian bustard, chinkara and black buck.


    National Zoological Park, New Delhi
    The National Zoological Park (NZP), New Delhi spread over an area of 176 acre and houses about 1200 animals and birds of 135 species. The effort at NZP is to maximise the visitor satisfaction by maintaining a healthy collection of a variety of endangered as well as common fauna.


    National Zoological Park, New Delhi


    Project Tiger

    Tiger - The Pride of Indian Forests


    Project Tiger was launched on April, 1973 on the basis of the recommendations of a special task-force of the Indian Board of Wildlife. The main objectives of ‘Project Tiger’ are…

    • To ensure maintenance of a viable population of tiger in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values.
    • To preserve, for all times, the areas of such biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people.

    At present there are 27 Tiger Reserves spreading over in 14 States and covering an area of about 37761 sq.km area.




    Vanamahotsava Celebrations


    In 1950 the Government of India began the annual festival of tree planting called the Vanamahotsava. Gujarat was the first state to implement it. However, it was only in the 1970s that greater impetus was given to the conservation of India's forests and wildlife. India was one of the first countries in the world to have introduced a social forestry programme to introduce trees in non-forested areas along road sides, canals, and railway lines.





    CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.

    Because the trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard certain species from over-exploitation. CITES was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.


    Conservation of plants and animals is the moral duty of every citizen all over the world.


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