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Question 1

Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?

Solution : 
Temperature and rainfall are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation.
Question 2

Write any two reasons for land degradation today?

Solution : 
Two reasons for land degradation are deforestation and overuse of chemical fertilisers.
Question 3

Why is land considered an important resource?

Solution :
Land is considered an important resource because it is used for different purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of industries.
Question 4

Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.

Solution :
National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves are established and run by the government to protect our natural vegetation and wildlife.
Awareness programmes like social forestry and Vanamahotsava- the planting of trees – are organised by the government to conserve forests which is a valuable natural resource.
Question 5

Suggest three ways to conserve water.

Solution :
Rain-water harvesting; lining irrigational canals to avoid seepage of water and using the sprinkler-system for irrigation are ways in which water can be conserved.
Question 6

Ganga–Brahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.

Solution :
True Reason: Plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture, hence, they are densely populated.
Question 7

Water availability per person in India is declining ?

Solution :
True Reason: Increasing population, rising demands for food and cash crops, increasing urbanisation and rising standards of living are the major factors leading to shortages in supply of fresh water.
Question 8

Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called intercropping ?

Solution :
False Reason: Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called Shelter belts
Question 9

Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the ecosystem ?

Solution :
False Reason: Changes of climate and human interferences can cause the loss of natural habitats for the plants and animals, hence destroy the ecosystem.
Question 10

Pick the Correct Answer
(a) Which one of the following is NOT a factor of soil formation?
(i) time                    (ii) soil texture         (iii) organic matter
(b) Which one of the following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes?
(i) shelter belts      (ii) mulching             (iii) terrace cultivation
(c) Which one of the following is NOT in favour of the conservation of nature?
(i) switch off the bulb when not in use
(ii) close the tap immediately after using
(iii) dispose poly-packs after shopping)

Solution :
(a) (ii) soil texture
(b) (iii) terrace cultivation
(c) (iii) dispose poly-packs after shopping
Question 11

Match the followings :
(i) Land use         (a) prevent soil erosion
(ii) Humus           (b) land suitable for agriculture
(iii) Rock dams   (c) productive use of land
(iv) Arable land (d) organic matter deposited on top soil

Solution :
(i) Land use         (c) productive use of land
(ii) Humus           (d) organic matter deposited on top soil
(iii) Rock dams   (a) prevent soil erosion
(iv) Arable land (b) land suitable for agriculture

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