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Some Diseases Caused by Microorganisms

Disease Symptoms Remarks
Mumps Painful swelling near the jaw on one or both sides. Mumps in males over the age of 11 may affect the testes, but it rarely results in sterility.
Chicken pox Small red spots which turn to blisters, andthen to scabs. Chicken pox affects children mildly but in adults it is severe. The same virus causes shingles.
Rabies Fever, delirium, convulsions, paralysis. The throat muscles tighten so that it is impossible even to drink. Rabies can infect all animals - fox, bats, etc. but it is mainly a serious risk to human beings ,if domestic animals are infected.
Tuberculosis cough and damage to lungs. Many people who are infected by TB germs do not develop TB. They develop a natural immunity to TB.
Typhoid Fever, constipation, dry cough. Can be prevented by proper sewage disposal.
Cholera diarrhoea, dehydration and collapse. Can be prevented by using clean water and clean food.


Plant diseases Micro organism Mode of transmission
Citrus canker Bacteria Air
Rust of wheat Fungi Air seeds
Yellow vein Virus Insect mosaic of bhindi (Okra) Virus Insect
Disease causing micro-organisms in Animals

Anthrax is a dangerous human and cattle disease caused by a bacterium Bacillus anthracis


Food poisoning

Food poisoning is due to the consumption of food spoilt by some micro-organisms. Micro-organisms that grow on our food sometimes produce toxic substances.



Food Preservation

Chemical Method:

Sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulphite are common preservatives. These are also used in jams and squashes to check their spoilage.


Preservation by Common Salt

Salting is also used to preserve Amla, raw mangoes, tamarind, lemon, etc.


Preservation by Sugar

Jams, jellies and squashes are preserved by sugar.


Preservation by Oil and Vinegar

Use of oil and vinegar prevents spoilage of pickles.


Heat and Cold Treatments

Boiling kills many micro-organisms. Low temperature inhibits the growth of microbes.


Storage and Packing

Dry fruits and even vegetables are sold in sealed air tight packets.


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