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Distribution of Minerals

Minerals occur in different types of rocks. They are:-
  • Igneous Rocks
  • Metamorphic Rocks
  • Sedimentary Rocks
  • Let us see which of these rocks yield metallic minerals and which of these yield non-metallic minerals.

    Metallic Minerals: Igneous and Metamorphic Rock

  • Iron-ore in north Sweden,
  • copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada,
  • iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa … are examples of minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • Non-metallic Minerals: Sedimentary Rock Formations

  • Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France,
  • Manganese deposits of Georgia and Ukraine,
  • Phosphate beds of Algeria
  • … are some examples of mineral found in sedimentary rock formations

    Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also found in the sedimentary strata.


    Distribution of minerals in the Continents




  • Asia produces more than half of the World’s tin.
  • China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s leading tin producers.
  • China and India have iron ore deposits.
  • China leads in production of lead, antimony and tungsten.
  • Asia also has deposits of manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper.

  • Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world.
  • Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France have large deposits of iron ore.
  • Minerals deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in Eastern Europe and European Russia.

  • North America

  • Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper are found in the Canadian Shield Region.
  • Coal is found in the Appalachians region.
  • Copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver are found in the Western Cordilleras.

  • South America

  • Brazil is the largest producer of high grade iron-ore in the world.
  • Chile and Peru are leading producers of copper.
  • Brazil and Bolivia are among the world’s largest producers of tin.
  • South America also has large deposits of gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond.
  • Mineral oil is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.

  • Africa

  • Africa is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum.
  • South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the world’s gold.
  • Copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite are also found in Africa.
  • Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.

  • Australia

  • Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.
  • Gold, diamond, iron ore, tin and nickel are also found in Australia. It is also rich in Australia is rich in copper, lead, zinc and manganese.
  • Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie in Western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.

  • Antarctica

  • Significant size of deposits of coal in the Tran Antarctic Mountains and iron near the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica is forecasted.
  • Iron ore, gold, silver and oil are also present in commercial quantities.

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