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Extraction of Minerals

Minerals can be extracted by:

  • Mining
  • Drilling
  • Quarrying




The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining.


I. Open-cast Mining:

Open-cast mining, also known as open-pit mining and open-cut mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rock are found near the surface.

Open-pit mines that produce building materials are commonly referred to as quarries.

Open-pit mines are typically enlarged until the mineral resource is exhausted.

Open-Cast Mines



II. Shaft Mining:

Shaft mining or Shaft sinking refers to the method of sinking a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.

  • The vertical tunnels or deep bores are called shafts.
  • The shafts have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths.

  • Shaft Mines




    A drilling rig is a machine which creates holes, called boreholes in the ground. Drilling rigs can be massive structures housing equipment used to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells.

  • Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface.
  • These minerals are taken out with a drilling rig.

  • Drilling Rig




    Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out, by the process known as quarrying.


    A quarry is a pit from which stone or other materials are obtained by digging, cutting, or blasting.


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