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Non-Conventional Sources

As conventional sources of energy are fast depleting and causing irreparable damage to the environment, scientist are finding new and non-conventional methods to generate energy.


Some of the non-conventional sources of energy are renewable like wind, tidal and solar energy. This renewable factor makes non-conventional sources a much sort after form of energy in these modern times.



Solar Energy

Solar energy is energy directly from the Sun. This energy drives the climate and weather and supports virtually all life on Earth.
  • Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in solar cells to produce electricity.
  • Many of these cells are joined into solar panels to generate power for heating and lighting purpose.
  • The technology of utilising solar energy benefits a lot of tropical countries that are blessed with abundant sun shine.
  • Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals.


Solar Energy

Wind Energy

  • Wind is a renewable source of energy.
  • It is inexhaustible.
  • Since olden days will-mills are used for grinding grains and lifting water.
  • Now a days high speed winds rotate wind mills and generate power which is used for various purposes.
  • Wind mills are located in coastal regions and in mountain passes where strong and steady winds blow.
  • Wind-farms are found in Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain.

Wind Power

Wind power is the fastest-growing energy source in the world. A wind turbine works the opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, a turbine uses wind to make electricity.

The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity. The electricity is sent through transmission and distribution lines to a substation, then on to homes, business houses and schools.


Wind turbines do not have any adverse effect on the environmental. That’s why wind power is gaining popularity. It is also becoming economically competitive with more conventional power sources – a fact that’s greatly improving its prospects as a viable energy source.


Spanish Wind mill


Nuclear Power

  • Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radio active elements like uranium and thorium.
  • These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power.
  • The greatest producers of nuclear power are USA and Europe.
  • In India Rajasthan and Jharkhand have large deposits of Uranium.
  • Thorium is found in large quantities in the Monazite sands of Kerala.
  • The nuclear power stations in India are located in…
  • Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu.
  • Tarapur in Maharashtra.
  • Ranapratap Sagar in Rajasthan.
  • Narora in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Kaiga in Karnataka.

    Non-Conventional Sources

    Geothermal Energy

    • Heat energy obtained from the earth is called geothermal energy and can be found almost anywhere on earth.
    • The temperature in the interior of the earth rises steadily as we go deeper.
    • Hot springs are a result of this geothermal energy and have been used for cooking, heating and bathing for several years.
    • Geothermal springs can also be used directly for heating purposes. Hot spring water is used to heat greenhouses, to dry out fish and de-ice roads, for improving oil recovery, and to heat fish farms and spas.
    • This heat energy is also used to generate power.
    • Geothermal energy offers a number of advantages over traditional fossil fuel based sources as it is clean and safe for the surrounding environment.
    • USA has the world’s largest geothermal power plants followed by New Zealand, Iceland, Philippines and Central America.
    • In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley in Ladakh.

    Geothermal Power Plant in Iceland

    The Working of a Geothermal Power Plant:

    There are three designs for geothermal power plants, all of which pull hot water and steam from the ground, use it, and then return it as warm water to prolong the life of the heat source.


    Geothermal Power Plant


    The largest geothermal system now in operation is a steam-driven plant in an area called the Geysers, north of San Francisco, California.

    One of 21 Power Plants at the Geysers



    Tidal Energy

    • Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy.
    • Tidal energy is a form of hydropower that exploits the movement of water caused by tidal currents or the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides.
    • Tidal energy can be harnessed by building dams at narrow openings of the sea.
    • During high tide the energy of the tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity.
    • Tidal turbines follow the same principles as wind turbines: the faster the current, and the larger the blades, the more power is generated.
    • Russia, France and the Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.

    The Working of a Tidal Power Plant:

    A huge dam called a "barrage" is built across a river estuary. When the tide goes in and out, the water flows through tunnels in the dam.

    The ebb and flow of the tides is used to turn a turbine, or it is used to push air through a pipe, which then turns a turbine and electricity is generated.




    • Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas.
    • Biogas is essentially a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.
    • The organic waste is decomposed by bacteria in biogas digesters to emit biogas.
    • Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting.
    • Biogas plants produce huge amounts of valuable organic manure each year.

    Household Biogas


    Commercial Biogas Digesters


    The Working of a Biogas Plant

  • The biogas plant consists of two components, a digester & a gas holder.
  • The digester is a cube-shaped or cylindrical waterproof container with an inlet into which the fermentable mixture is introduced in the form of liquid organic waste.
  • The gas holder is an airproof steel container that, by floating like a ball on the fermentation mix, collects the gas generated.
  • The gas holder is equipped with a gas outlet.
  • The gas got from the out let is used for lighting stoves , lamps or other purposes.
  • The digester is provided with an overflow pipe to drain the used organic waste into a drainage pit.
  • Energy is found everywhere. Harnessing energy is difficult and costly. Some sources of energy are depleting and man cannot exist without energy.

    The power to conserve this precious energy is within every one of us.

    Let us not waste energy for not wasting is saving.


    Energy saved is energy generated.


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