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  • Reproduction is the basic biological process by which organisms perpetuate their own species.

  • There are two modes by which organisms reproduce - sexually and asexually.

  • Both modes of reproduction has their own merits and demerits.

  • Human beings reproduce sexually. The males produce sperm while the females produce ova.

  • Fertilization is the union of male and female gametes in sexual reproduction. There are two types of fertilization - internal and external.

  • Zygote is the end product of fertilization. It develops into embryo. At an advanced stage, when organs have developed, it is called foetus.

  • Development of embryo may take place either inside or outside the body of the female. Accordingly the animals are grouped into oviparous and viviparous.

  • Viviparous animals may develop into adults directly or may cross through a few larval stages before becoming adult.

  • Asexual reproduction is commonly found in lower animals. There are several types - budding, fission, sporulation, regeneration are a few to be mentioned.

  • Human beings, with the help of advanced technology can assist the process of reproduction in infertile humans. In vitro fertilization is one such example of Artificial Reproductive Technology.

  • Cloning is a recent technology where an exact copy of an adult organism can be taken through artificial means.

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