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Question 1

(a) Growers of woad in Europe saw ___________ as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings.
(b) The demand for indigo increased in late eighteenth- century Britain because of ___________ .
(c) The international demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of ___________ .
(d) The Champaran movement was against ______________.

   (a) Indian indigo

   (b) industrialisation

   (c) synthetic dyes

   (d) indigo planters
Question 2

Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.

The Company introduced the Permanent Settlement Act in 1793. According to the Permanent Settlement Act the ‘rajas’ and ‘taluqdars’ were recognised as zamindars.
As ‘zamindars’ they could collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The amount to be paid as revenue was fixed permanently by the company. This was an incentive for the zamindars to increase agricultural production and still pay the same revenue to the Company. This Act encouraged the zamindars to invest more money and improve the lands and increase production.
Since the revenue demand of the state would not be increased, the zamindars would benefit from increased production from the land.
Question 3

How was the mahalwari system different from the Permanent Settlement?

In the ‘mahalwari system’ the revenue to be paid to the Company was to be periodically revised according to the prevailing conditions, while the revenue was fixed permanently in the Permanent Settlement Act.
Question 4

Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.

In the Munro system the revenue fixed by the British officials was too high for the farmers. Unable to pay the revenue the farmers left the farms and consequently villages were deserted in many regions.
Question 5

Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?

The ryots were reluctant to grow indigo because the price they got for the indigo they produced was very low. The planters insisted that indigo be cultivated on the best soils in which peasants preferred to cultivate rice. As the Indigo plant had deep roots it exhausted the soil fertility and the land was unfit for rice cultivation.
Question 6

What were the circumstances which led to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?

Indian farmers rebelled against being forced to grow indigo plants. The Blue Rebellion broke out in March 1859, which was the beginning of the collapse of indigo production in Bengal.
Farmers refused to pay rent to the planters. They attacked the indigo factories with weapons and their womenfolk attacked with pots and pans. The agents of the planters were beaten and farmers who worked for the planters were socially segregated.

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