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Fundamental Rights and Secularism

Fundamental Rights

  • Fundamental Rights, drafted in the Constitution, protect citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of power by the State.
  • Fundamental Rights guarantees the rights of individuals against the State as well as against other individuals.
  • It protects minority communities and guarantees rights against the majority

Fundamental Rights is referred to as the ‘conscience’ of the Indian Constitution and has a set of written rules that guard against the misuse of State power in Independent India.


Fundamental rights as formatted by Dr. Ambedkar has two objectives

  • Every citizen must be in a position to claim the rights

  • The rights must be binding upon every authority that has got the power to make laws.

In addition to Fundamental Rights, the Constitution has a section called Directive Principles of State Policy. This section was designed by the members of the Constituent

Assembly to ensure greater social and economic reform, and to serve as a guide to the independent Indian State to institute laws and policies that help reduce the poverty of the masses.

The Major Components of Fundamental rights are …


  • Right to Equality
    • All persons are equal before the law.
    • No citizen can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, caste or sex.
    • The State cannot discriminate against anyone in matters of employment.
  • Right to Freedom
    • The right to freedom of speech and expression .
    • The right to form associations.
    • The right to move freely and reside in any part of the country.
    • The right to practice any profession, occupation or business.
  • Right against Exploitation
    • Prohibition against trafficking, forced and child labor
  • Right to Freedom of Religion
    • Every person has the right to practice, profess and propagate the religion of their choice.
  • Cultural and Educational Rights
    • All minorities, religious or linguistic, can set up their own educational institutions in order to preserve and deve
    • lop their own culture.
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies
    • Citizens can go to court for justice if they believe that any of their Fundamental Rights have been violated by the State

A secular state is one in which the state does not officially promote any one religion as the state religion.

In India, which is a secular state, all religions are given equal importance.

  • The Constitution plays an important role in laying out the ideals that we would like all citizens of the country to follow.
  • The Indian Constitution has been changed over the years to adapt to changing times.

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