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  • India has a substantial number of tribal population distributed in different States and Union territories.
  • Tribal people constitute 8.3% of the nation's total population, which is over 84 million people according to the 2001 census.
  • The Bodos of Assam represents one of the largest ethnic and linguistic groups of the Brahmaputra valley
    The Gondi or Gond people are spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, northern Andhra Pradesh, and western Orissa.
  • Kurumbars are shepherds of South India.
  • The Toda people are a small pastoral community who live on the isolated Nilgiri plateau of Southern India.
  • The Mundas are a tribal people of the Jharkhand region, which is spread over on five states of India and in parts of Bangladesh.
  • The Tribals considered the British as Dikus or Outsiders.
  • Tribal people in different parts of India were involved in a variety of activities like Shifting cultivation, hunting & gathering forest produce, herding animals, settled cultivation and shifting cultivation.
  • British officials saw settled tribal groups like the Gonds and Santhals as more civilised than hunter-gatherers or shifting cultivators.
  • As the British established political power in India and enforced laws, the lives of the tribals changed dramatically.
  • During the late nineteenth century, tea plantations started coming up and mining became an important industry.
  • Tribals were recruited in large numbers to work the tea plantations of Assam and the coal mines of Jharkhand.
  • During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, tribal groups in different parts of the country rebelled against the laws, restrictions and new taxes imposed by the British.

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