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The natural environment of any country can be classified into:

1. Land and Landforms

2. Water, that is rivers and seas

3. Climate

We are now going to learn about the climate in India.

India Climatic Zones


Climate is the variations of weather in a region over long periods of time. It can be commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period. And Weather is the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time.

The main difference between climate and everyday weather can be best understood by the popular saying "Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get."

Climatic zones can be defined using parameters such as temperature and rainfall.

The elements of weather are:-

1. Temperature
2. Atmospheric Pressure
3. Wind
4. Humidity
5. Precipitation.

Weather conditions keep fluctuating always. Seasons are determined on the basis of the weather fluctuations.

Different weather conditions

1. Cool or hot
2. Windy or calm
3. Cloudy or bright
4. Rainy or dry

On the basis of these weather conditions , the year is divided into seasons such as:

1. Summer
2. Autumn
3. Winter
4. Spring

In India the 3 mains seasons are summer, winter and the monsoon or rainy season.

Since olden days instruments were used to gauge weather.

  • Instruments used during the Olden Days
  • Instruments such as thermometers, barometers, and anemometers were used to measure weather during the past few centuries.


    The revolving-cup electric anemometer is used to measure wind speeds. The revolving cups drive an electric generator that operates an electric meter.

  • Instruments used during the Modern Days
  • Now-a-days Weather Satellites are used predict climatic changes. This advanced technology has averted many disasters that could have been caused by weather conditions such as storms, tornadoes and cyclones.

    Weather Satellite

    The Synchronous Meteorological Satellite was the first geosynchronous weather satellite.

    Tsunami Warning System


    Instruments to forecast impending tsunamis have also been installed in many countries.

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