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d. Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country.


a. The basic idea, that the country should be democratic after independence, was accepted by almost all the Leaders of the freedom movement.

b. Members of the Constituent Assembly of India belonged to different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations. They held different views on the provisions of the Constitution.

c. A country that is democratic must have a constitution.

d. The Constitution has to be amended regularly, to keep it updated.


c. Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the constitution.
d. A constitution is about institutions, not about values.


a. The statement is not true
The Constitution is the supreme law of the country, the constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government and how the government should function. It is not the same as any other law.

b. The statement is true
The constitution specifies how the government will be constituted, and as to who will have the power to take specific decisions.

c. The statement is true
The constitution ensures fundamental rights to its citizens, the powers of the government and how the government should function.

d. The statement is not true
The Preamble of the Constitution provides a standard in which the laws and actions of the government can be examined and evaluated to find out whether they are good or bad. The Constitution is not merely a statement of values and philosophy; it ensures that the values are embedded into the institutional arrangements.


Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married women’, published in 1912. ‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defence. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection – of father, husband and son – all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men’. Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values?

The values expressed in the given passage, which was published in 1912, is totally contradictory to the values of our Constitution. Our constitution spells out the equality among all the citizens, whether they are men or women.

According to Indian constitution, ‘All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunity for all.


(c) We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.


(a) It is true that Indians gained experience in the working of the legislative institutions. Elections were held to Provincial Legislatures and Ministries all over British India in 1937. Though it was not a fully democratic government, Indians who were inducted, gained experience. This experience was very useful when India had to set up its own institutions. The Indian constitution also adopted many institutional details and procedures from the colonial laws like the Government of India Act 1935. 

(b) It is values that inspired and guided the freedom struggle. It is this struggle that ultimately won India its freedom. So it is very important that free India should be a total democracy. These values guide all the articles of the Indian Constitution and are embedded in the Preamble of the Constitution.

(c) India was indeed very fortunate in having leaders who were deeply convinced about democratic principals. Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, Jawaharlal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad, to name a few, played an important role in providing total democracy after independence.


Read again the extracts from Nehru's speech 'Tryst with Destiny' and answer the following:

(a) Why did Nehru use the expression "not wholly or in full measure"
in the first sentence?

(b) What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take?

(c) "The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye". Who was he referring to?

(a) In his speech, ‘Tryst with Destiny’, Nehruji used the expression "not wholly or in full measure" when he talked about the freedom we had gained. He felt that only when we wipe the tears and suffering of all the people have we obtained full freedom.

(b) In his speech, ‘Tryst with Destiny’, Nehruji wanted every one to "take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the
still larger cause of humanity …".

(c) Nehruji was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.


A friend from Nepal has written you a letter describing the political situation there. Many political parties are opposing the rule of the king. Some of them say that the existing constitution given by the monarch can be amended to allow more powers to elected representatives. Others are demanding a new Constituent Assembly to write a republican constitution. Reply to your friend giving your opinions on the subject.

More powers to the elected representatives in the existing constitution will certainly give a little freedom to the citizens of Nepal.

If the citizens are looking for total democracy, and total freedom, such as freedom of speech, religion and equality, then a new constitutional assembly should be elected to write a republican constitution. But it is very essential that the struggle for total freedom is free of violence and done on the lines of ahimsa as in India.

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