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Which of the following is not an instance of an exercise of a fundamental right ?
(a) Workers from Bihar go to the Punjab to work on the farms
(b) Christian missions set up a chain of missionary schools
(c) Men and women government employees get the same salary

(d) Parent’s property is inherited by their children.


(d) Parent’s property is inherited by their children.


Which of the following freedoms is not available to an Indian citizen ?

(a) Freedom to criticize the government
(b) Freedom to participate in armed revolution
(c) Freedom to start a movement to change the government

(d) Freedom to oppose the central values of the Constituion.


(b) Freedom to participate in armed revolution.


Which of the following rights is available under the Indian Constitution ?

(a) Right to work
(b) Right to adequate livelihood

(c) Right to protect one's culture

(d) Right to privacy



(c) Right to protect one’s culture.


Name the Fundamental Right under which each of the following rights falls :
(a) Freedom to propagate one’s religion
(b) Right to life
(c) Abolition of untouchability

(d) Ban on bonded labour


(a) Right to Freedom of Religion.

(b) Right to Freedom.

(c) Right to Equality.

(d) Right Against Exploitation.


Which of these statements about the relationship between democracy and rights is more valid? Give reasons for your preference.

(a) Every country that is a democracy gives rights to its citizens.
(b) Every country that gives rights to its citizens is a democracy.

(c) Giving rights is good, but it is not necessary for a democracy.



Statement (a) is more valid. Every country with provides rights to it citizens might not be a democracy but it is essential for a democracy to provide rights to its citizens.

(a) Every democratic country that is a democracy gives rights to its citizens. In democracy every citizen has to  the right to vote and the right to be elected. For democratic elections to take place, it is necessary that citizens should have the right to express their opinion, form political parties and take part in other political activities. Besides, in democratic countries, special provisions are made for the protection of right. In most democratic countries, the more important rights are included in the constitution. The constitution of India also contains a list of Fundamental Rights. Provisions have been made for the protection of these rights.


Are these restrictions on the right to freedom justified ? Give reasons for your answer.

(a) Indian citizens need permission to visit some border areas of the country for reasons of security.
(b) Outsiders are not allowed to buy property in some areas to protect the interest of the local population.

(c) The government bans the publication of a book that can go against the ruling party in the next elections.


(a) Under Right to Freedom, all the citizens enjoy the freedom to move freely throughout the country. However, due to security reason, the freedom of movement of ordinary citizens can be restricted and their entry in border areas or army cantonment areas is generally restricted. This is very much justified as the freedom of movement by every citizen can prove dangerous for the security of India.

(b) In certain cases, (in remote and tribal areas) such restrictions can be justified, so that people of the area can maintain their cultural or ethnic identiy. According to Article 370 of the constitution, outsiders are not allowed to buy property and settle permanently in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

(c) Such a restriction cannot be justified as it amounts to a clear violation of the right to freedom of expression.


Manoj went to a college to apply for admission into an MBA course. The clerk refused to take his application and said "you, the son of a sweeper, wish to be a manager! Has anyone done this job in your community ? Go to the municipality office and apply for a sweeper’s position". Which of Manoj’s fundamental rights are being violated in this instance ? Spell these out in a letter from Manoj to the district collector.

In this case, Manoj’s fundamental right to freedom is being violated. Under Right to Freedom, every citizen enjoys the right to practice and profession or to carry on any profession or to carry on any occupation trade or business. It implies that no one can be forced to do or not to do a certain job. Hence, for deprived or lower castes cannot be kept to their traditional occupations.


When Madhurima went to the property registration office, the Registrar told her, "you cant’t write your name as Madhurima Banerjee d/o A.K. Banerjee. You are married, so you must give husband’s name. your husband’s surname is Rao. So your name should be changed to Madhurima Rao". She did not agree. She said "If my husband’s name has not changed after marriage, why should mine?" In your opinion who is right in this dispute? And why?

In my opinion, in the case cited above, the right in dispute is the ‘Right to Equality’. Article 16 of the constitution of India says that the government shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of regligon, caste ethnicity, sex, on place of birth. In the case, Madhurima is claiming equality as guaranteed to her by the constitution. There can be no discrimination between two citizens on grounds of sex.


Thousands of tribals and other forest dwellers gathered at piparia in Hoshangabad district in Madhya Pradesh to protest against their proposed displacement from the Satpura National park, Bori Wildlife Sanctuary and Panchmarhi wildlife Sanctuary. They argue that such a displacement is an attack on their livelihood and beliefs. Government claims that their displacement is essential for the development of the area and for protection of wildlife. Write a petition on behalf of the forest dwellers to the NHRC, a response from the government and a report of the NHRC on this matter.

The Tribals and other forest dwellers gathered at piparia in Hoshangabad district in M.P. to protest against their displacement from the Satpura National Park, Bori Wildlife Sanctuary and Panchmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary. They were protesting as their Fundamental Right to Freedom, which gives them ‘right to reside in any part of the country’ is being violated. Hint, the Government is empowered to restrict their right in public interest. Sometimes back, a large number of Jhuggi dwellers were removed from the banks of river Yamuna in Delhi. In the case, the government claims that their displacement is essential for the development of the area and the protection of wildlife.

The forest dwellers wrote a petition to the National Human Right commission and requested that they should not be displaced until arrangements are made by the government for their resettlement at some other place. NHRC can represent their case to the government or can ask them to go to a court of law. The recent decision of the Supreme Court in ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ case is an example of the same, the court has asked the government to make arrangements for the resettlement of the people at some other place where jhuggi are proving obstacles in raising the height of the ‘Narmada Bandh’.

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