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Explain any one method of crop production, which ensures high yield.

Crop rotation is one of the methods of crop production that ensures high yield. It is the method of growing two or more varieties of crops on the same land in sequential seasons.
A crop utilizes some particulat nutrients in larger quentites from tje soil. Then if the same crop is grown in subsequent seasons those nutrients will get depleted in the soil.
Therefore, crops having different nutrient requirements are rotated.
For example :- legumes which have nitrogen fixing bacteria in their root nodules supply the soil with nitrogen. Therefore, these legumes are rotated with nitrogen requireing cereals such as wheat and maize . This method reduces the need of fertilizers, there by increasing the overrall yield of crops.


Why are manures and fertilizers used in fields?

By continuous cultivation of crops, the nutrients of the soil get depleted. So, to supply nutrients and to keep soil fertility manures and fertilizers are used.


What are the advantages of inter- cropping and crop rotation?

Advantage of intercropping – In intercropping two or more crops are on the same field in a definite row pattern. That is, a few rows of the crop and adjoining to that, a few rows of another crop are planted. This practice reduces intraspecific competition for same type of nutrients. In this way both crops can give better yield.

Advantages of crop rotation:

(i) Crop rotation makes the soil fertile and helps in the production of crop yield.

(ii) It decreases the demand of nitrogenous fertilizers. Leguminous plants grown during crop rotation fix atmospheric nitrogen and enrich the soil with nitrogen compounds.

(iii) Rotation of crops helps in pest control. Pests do not find their favourite crop in the next season and find hard to survive.


What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?

Genetic manipulation means to incorporate desired characters in plants by hybridisation, mutation, DNA recombination, polyploidy etc. Use in agricultural practices – By genetic manipulation improved variety of seeds can be developed. The quality seeds having desired characters such as resistance to disease and drought , better input response, goon in quality and higher yield, to reduce the input cost.


What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?

Cereals – Carbohydrates
Pulses – Proteins
Fruits and vegetables – Vitamins, minerals along with small quantities of proteins, carbohydrates and oil .


How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?

Biotic factors, such as diseases, insects and nematodes and abiotic factors, such as drought, salinity, water logging, heat, cold and frost, cause stresses on the crops. This results in decrease of crop production. Sometimes these stresses under different situations may cause destruction of the whole crop.


What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvement?

Desirable agronomic characteristics in crop plants help to give higher yield. For example, desirable characters for fodder crops are tallness and profuse branching. For cereal crops dwarfness is the desired character so that less nutrients are consumed by these crops.


What are macronutrients and why are they called macronutrients?

Macronutrients are the chemical elements required by plants such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur. They are called major or macronutrients because they are required in large quantities.


How do plants get nutrients?

Plants need 16 nutrients. Out of these 16 elements, plants get 2 nutrients from air, 1 nutrient from water and rest of 13 nutrients from the soil.


Compare the use of manure and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility.

Manures are rich in organic matter but are poor supplier of nutrients. So, the cultivated field, which is not supplied with fertilizers, may suffer from deficiency of nutrients and may not give very good yield.
The cultivated field, which is supplied with fertilizers, may only face drainage problem and water logging, due to lack of organic matter in the soil. This may harm the crop and the yield. Use of fertilizers over long periods of time can destroy the soil structure by killing the soil microorganisms that recycle nutrients in the soil.


Which of the following conditions will give most of the benefits? Why?

(a) Farmers use quality seeds but do not adopt irrigation and use fertilizers.
(b) Farmers use ordinary seeds and adapt irrigation and use fertilizers.
(c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizers and use crop protection measures.

Conditions given in (c) are beneficial for farmers because the use of
(i) Quality seeds will provide genotypes for various characters such as resistance, input response, quality and higher yield.
(ii) Proper irrigation methods fulfill water requirement of crop at proper time.
(iii) Fertilizers will provide required nutrients.
(iv) Crop protection measures will check loss of crop and crop product. Thus, farmers will get maximum benefit of their input in the form of good seeds and agronomic approaches.


Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops.

Preventive measures and biological control, are safe methods for protecting crops. They do not cause environmental pollution. Chemical measures such as spraying chemicals on crops or treating seeds with chemicals cause environmental pollution.
Moreover, biological control method protect crops from the beginning, i.e before weeds, pests and diseases tend to affect the plants.


What factors may be responsible for the loss of grains during storage?

There is about 9.3% annual loss of grain during storage. The causes of loss of grains are due to
(i) Biotic factors such as insects, fungi, bacteria, rodents, mites, birds, etc.
(ii) Abiotic factors such as moisture content in grains and temperature at which they are stored.


Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?

Artificial insemination
Reasons: (i) Semen of bull can be obtained / imported / transported to remote parts of the country. It is because semen can be frozen and can be stored for a long period.
(ii) By artificial insemination many cows can be fertilized by the semen collected from one bull.


Discuss the implication of the following statement

"It is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fibre food stuff into highly nutritious animal protein food".
It means that in India which is the 5th largest country in poultry farming , mainly fowl can be raised on low fibre food stuff which is unfit for human consumption. Poultry provide both egg and meat, which are rich sources of proteins. Chickens and eggs are poultry products of large section of non-vegetarian population.


What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?

Important points to remember in dairy and poultry farming are:
(i) Proper housing, hygienic conditions, i.e., cleaning, sanitation, spraying disinfectants at regular intervals.
(ii) Vaccination for prevention of infectious diseases.
(iii) Selection of good quality breed.
(iv) Enough space, proper light intensity and duration and maintenance of temperature.
(v) Proper feeding management.


What is the difference between broilers and layers and in their management?

Broilers: Chicken raised up to 6-7 weeks weighing 700 g to 1.5 kg are called broilers.
Management: They are fed proteins, fats with vitamins especially vitamin A and vitamin K which is a rich supplementary feed for good growth rate and better feeding efficiency. Care is taken to avoid mortality, feathering and carcass quality and hygienic condition is provided.
Layers are hens, which start laying eggs at the age of 20 weeks. The egg production in commercial layer is 500 days.
Management includes maintenance of temperature and hygienic conditions in housing, poultry feed, prevention and control of diseases, pests etc.
The layers require enough space, proper light intensity and its duration. Feeding of vitamins, minerals and micronutrients also influence hatchability of eggs.


How are fish obtained?

Fish is obtained by catching from natural resources called capture fisheries. Fish is also cultivated by various culture methods.


What are the desirable characters of bee variety suitable for bee keeping?

Desirable characters of bees for bee keeping are
(i) Good honey collection capacity,
(ii) Prolific queen production with less swarming,
(iii) Ability to protect itself from enemies.


What is pasturage and how it is related to honey production?

Pasturage – The flora/crops found around apiary to collect honey and pollen grains is called pasturage.
Pasturage flora of honeybee includes, Mango, Coconut, Almond, Sisham, Apple, Tamarind, Mahua, and Coriander.
Relation with honey production – The quality and the taste of honey depend upon the flora/pasturage around the apiary, from which bees collect the nectar and pollens. For example, region of Kashmir having almond plant pasturage that produce almond honey which is good in quality, taste and smell.

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