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Isotopes and Isobars

Dalton in his atomic theory stated that atoms of the same element are identical in all respects of size, shape and structure. Scientists believed in this hypothesis of Dalton. But latter it was disproved. An element may have more than one kind of atoms. They may have same number of electrons and protons (i.e. same atomic number), but they may differ from each other with respect to number of neutrons i.e. they may have different mass number or atomic mass. Such atoms of an element are known as Isotopes.

Atoms of the same element (rather elements) having same atomic number (Z), but different mass number (A) (rather atomic mass).

In other words isotopes differ from each other with respect to number of neutrons.
Almost all elements have isotopes.


Isotopes of Hydrogen

There are three Isotopes of hydrogen:


Atoms of different elements with different atomic number but with the same mass number are called isobars. For example calcium and argon have different number of electrons and have different atomic numbers. But they have same mass number as 40 and so they are said to be isobars.



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