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How many times did you fall ill during the last year? What were the illnesses?

(a) Think of one change you could make in your habits in order to avoid any of the above illnesses.
(b) Think of one change you would wish for, in your surroundings in order to avoid any of the above illnesses.

Three times in the last year. Name of the diseases – malaria, dysentery, viral fever.

(a) Change in habit

(i) avoiding accumulation of stagnant water to avoid mosquito breeding.

(ii) use of spray and other measures to kill mosquitoes.

(iii) keeping the surroundings clean.

(iv) Use of nourishing food and safe water. Avoiding exposed food and unfiltered water.

(v) Personal hygiene. (Comment: to be checked by the subject teacher)

(b) One change in surroundings – Avoiding accumulation of garbage and stagnant water in the surroundings


A doctor / nurse / health – worker is exposed to more sick people than others in the community. Find out how she / he avoids getting sick herself /himself.

A doctor/ nurse / health-work avoid getting sick herself / himself by

(i) Observing personal hygiene rules, i.e., personal cleanliness, washing hand with antiseptics like, dettol / savlon etc. after handling equipments, clothes etc. of patients.

(ii) Use of mask to cover the mouth and nose to avoid infection through air (droplets thrown during sneezing or coughing of the patient).

(iii) Avoiding direct physical contact i.e., use of hand gloves.

(iv) They have no sexual contact with the sick people.

(v) They avoid sharing of food items or water used by the patient.

(vi) Keep the surroundings clean.

(vii) They eat sufficient and nourishing food to keep their immune system healthy.

(viii) Undergo immunization time to time regularly.


Conduct a survey in your neighbourhood to find out what the three most common diseases are. Suggest three steps that could be taken by your local authorities to bring down the occurance of these diseases.

Common diseases are dysentery, malaria, viral fever / jaundice.
Preventive measures:

(i) Cleanliness of the surroundings i.e., removal of garbage from the streets / houses and storing it in a covered place till it is disposed off.

(ii) Removal of ditches where water stagnates as it is the  breeding place of mosquitoes. 

Spray of chemicals / smoke in the surroundings to kill mosquitoes.

(iii) Ensure supply of safe drinking water. (or) Periodical programmes to educate people about prevention of diseases.


A baby is not able to tell her / his caretakers that she / he is sick. What would help us to find out.
(a) That the baby is sick?
(b) What is the sickness?

(a) The symptoms and signs can tell that the baby is sick. Symptoms may be cough, loose motions, wound with pus, vomiting etc.

(b) (i) Signs will give a little more definite indication of the presence of a particular disease. For example, yellow colour of the eyes, skin etc. indicate jaundice.

(ii) To be confirmed, further laboratory tests should be done.


Under which of the following conditions is a person most likely to fall sick?

(a) When she is recovering from malaria.

(b) When she has recovered from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken- pox.

(c) When she is on a four-day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox. Since during lack of proper and sufficient food, the immune system will not be functioning properly.


Under which of the following conditions are you most likely to fall sick?

(a) When you are taking examinations.

(b) When you have travelled by bus or train for two days.

(c) When your friend is suffering from measles. It is because when your friend is suffering from measles, you are likely to visit him to ask his welfare. Measles is infectious disease, which spreads through air; disease is transmitted by droplets thrown in the air during sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge etc. So, you are most likely to get infected by the disease.


State any two conditions essential for good health.

’Health’ is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially. Therefore, for good health.
(i) One should be disease free.

(ii) There should be social equality and harmony which are essential for individual health particularly for social and mental health.


State any two conditions essential for being free of disease.

(i) Remain away from specific and particular cause for discomfort or disease. For which personal and public cleanliness and good physical environment are necessary.

(ii) Proper and sufficient food necessary for functioning of cells and tissues of the body.


List any three reasons why you would think that you are sick and ought to see a doctor. If only one of these symptoms were present, would you still go to the doctor? Why or why not?

Common symptoms, which indicate sickness are:

(i) Headache,

(ii) Cough and

(iii) Loose motion.
Even seeing one symptoms, I will go to doctor.
Reason: A single symptom is the sign of a disease. On delaying, it may lead to serious illness. For example, headache may mean meningitis.


In which of the following case do you think the long-term effects on your health are likely to be most unpleasant?

(i) If you get jaundice.

(ii) If you get lice.

(iii) If you get acne.

Jaundice because it is a chronic disease and takes long time to be cured. Moreover, jaundice affects the whole body and it takes long time to be healthy.


Why are we normally advised to take bland and nourishing food when we are sick?

Infectious disease show a lack of success of the immune system of the body. For the functioning of immune system properly, sufficient nourishment and easily digestable food is necessary for a sick person.


What are the different means by which infectious diseases are spread?

Infection causing microbes travel from patient to person through:

(i) Air: Sneezing or coughing since little droplets are thrown which  they reach  another person through air. Example, common cold, pneumonia etc.

(ii) Water: Contaminated water carries disease causing microbes which cause infection on its usage . Example, diseases such as cholera.

(iii) Sexual contact: Diseases such as syphilis or AIDS are transmitted by sexual contact from one person to the other.

(iv) Animals: These are intermediaries, called vectors, transmitting diseases from a patient to the host. Example, mosquitoes (Female Anopheles mosquito) cause spread of malaria.


What precautions could you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?

(i) Preventing overcrowding classes,

(ii) Providing safe drinking water,

(iii) Cleanliness in the school premises and also in the classroom,

(iv) Use of handkerchief or towel while an infected student in sneezing or coughing,

(v) Use of clean toilets,

(vi) Not to allow water to stagnate in school or around the school to avoid mosquito breeding,

(vii) To get vaccinated whenever programmes are organized in the school for inoculation against various diseases.

(viii) Not eating food exposed to flies, mosquitoes etc.


What is immunization?

Introduction of mild type of infection (microbes) or killed infectious microbes into the body by vaccination / by other means to activate the immune system against a particular infection / disease is called immunization.


What is the immunization programme available at the nearest health center in your locality? Which of these diseases are the major health problems in your area?

Immunization programmes:
(i) BCG vaccine against tuberculosis.

(ii) Polio drops against polio.

(iii) Vaccination against chicken pox.

(iv) Vaccination against Hepatitis.

(v) DPT vaccination against diptheria, pertusis (whooping cough) and tetanus.

(vi) Immunisation against measles.

Major health problems are, (i) Hepatitis, (ii) Chicken pox, (iii) Tuberculosis, and (iv) Tetanus

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