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Types of Electrical Energy Sources

Energy source is defined as the device that generates electrical energy. They are classified according to the current voltage characteristics. The classification is given below.
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Independent Voltage Source An ideal voltage source has the following features.
  1. It is a voltage generator whose output voltage remains absolutely constant whatever be the value of the output current.
  2. It has zero internal resistance so that voltage drop in the source is zero.
  3. The power drawn by the source is zero.
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Independent voltage sources and their characteristics
Independent Current Source An ideal current source has the following features.
  1. It produces a constant current irrespective of the value of the voltage across it.
  2. It has infinity resistance.
  3. It is capable of supplying infinity power.
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Independent current sources and their characteristics
Dependent Sources In dependent sources (also referred as controlled sources), the source voltage or current is not fixed, but is dependent on a voltage or current at some other location in the circuit. Thus, there are four types of dependent sources.
  1. Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)
  2. Current Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS)
  3. Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCCS)
  4. Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS)
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Symbols of dependent sources
Dependent sources are unilateral, because for a voltage controlled voltage source, say, v2 = kv1, the output voltage v2 is controlled by the input voltage v1, but the output current i2 has no influence on the input v1.
Application in electronic systems that uses either the transistors or vacuum tubes needs dependent sources.

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