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  • Data is a tool which helps in reaching a sound conclusion on any problem by providing information.
  • Primary data is based on first hand information.
  • Survey can be done by personal interviews, mailing questionnaires and telephone interviews.
  • Census covers every individual/unit belonging to the population.
  • Sample is a smaller group selected from the population from which the relevant information would be sought.
  • In a random sampling, every individual is given an equal chance of being selected for providing information.
  • Sampling error arises due to the difference between the actual population and the estimate.
  • Non-sampling errors can arise in data acquisition, by non-response or by bias in selection.
  • Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation are two important agencies at the national level, which collect, process and tabulate data.

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